282 research outputs found

    Multiple scattering of ultrasound in weakly inhomogeneous media: application to human soft tissues

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    Waves scattered by a weakly inhomogeneous random medium contain a predominant single scattering contribution as well as a multiple scattering contribution which is usually neglected, especially for imaging purposes. A method based on random matrix theory is proposed to separate the single and multiple scattering contributions. The experimental set up uses an array of sources/receivers placed in front of the medium. The impulse responses between every couple of transducers are measured and form a matrix. Single-scattering contributions are shown to exhibit a deterministic coherence along the antidiagonals of the array response matrix, whatever the distribution of inhomogeneities. This property is taken advantage of to discriminate single from multiple-scattered waves. This allows one to evaluate the absorption losses and the scattering losses separately, by comparing the multiple scattering intensity with a radiative transfer model. Moreover, the relative contribution of multiple scattering in the backscattered wave can be estimated, which serves as a validity test for the Born approximation. Experimental results are presented with ultrasonic waves in the MHz range, on a synthetic sample (agar-gelatine gel) as well as on breast tissues. Interestingly, the multiple scattering contribution is found to be far from negligible in the breast around 4.3 MHz.Comment: 35 pages, 11 figures, final version, contains the appendix of the original articl

    Negative reflection of elastic guided waves in chaotic and random scattering media

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    The propagation of waves in complex media can be harnessed either by taming the incident wave-field impinging on the medium or by forcing waves along desired paths through its careful design. These two alternative strategies have given rise to fascinating concepts such as time reversal or negative refraction. Here, we show how these two processes are intimately linked through the negative reflection phenomenon. A negative reflecting mirror converts a wave of positive phase velocity into its negative counterpart and vice versa. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate this phenomenon with elastic waves in a 2D billiard and in a disordered plate by means of laser interferometry. Despite the complexity of such configurations, the negatively reflected wave field focuses back towards the initial source location, thereby mimicking a phase conjugation operation while being a fully passive process. The super-focusing capability of negative reflection is also highlighted in a monochromatic regime. The negative reflection phenomenon is not restricted to guided elastic waves since it can occur in zero-gap systems such as photonic crystals, chiral metamaterials or graphene. Negative reflection can thus become a tool of choice for the control of waves in all fields of wave physics.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

    Retrieving time-dependent Green's functions in optics with low-coherence interferometry

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    We report on the passive measurement of time-dependent Green's functions in the optical frequency domain with low-coherence interferometry. Inspired by previous studies in acoustics and seismology, we show how the correlations of a broadband and incoherent wave-field can directly yield the Green's functions between scatterers of a complex medium. Both the ballistic and multiple scattering components of the Green's function are retrieved. This approach opens important perspectives for optical imaging and characterization in complex scattering media.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Exploiting the Time-Reversal Operator for Adaptive Optics, Selective Focusing and Scattering Pattern Analysis

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    We report on the experimental measurement of the backscattering matrix of a weakly scattering medium in optics, composed of a few dispersed gold nanobeads. The DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) is applied to this matrix and we demonstrate selective and efficient focusing on individual scatterers, even through an aberrating layer. Moreover, we show that this approach provides the decomposition of the scattering pattern of a single nanoparticle. These results open important perspectives for optical imaging, characterization and selective excitation of nanoparticles.Comment: 10 page
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