949 research outputs found

    Plasmonics: Chip-based component devices and metamaterials

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    Dispersion control and active materials integration have yielded plasmonic components including i) three-dimensional single layer plasmonic metamaterials ii) all-optical, electro-optic and field effect modulation of plasmon propagation iii) plasmon-enhanced absorption in solar cells

    Cooperative behavior of quantum dipole emitters coupled to a zero-index nanoscale waveguide

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    We study cooperative behavior of quantum dipole emitters coupled to a rectangular waveguide with dielectric core and silver cladding. We investigate cooperative emission and inter-emitter entanglement generation phenomena for emitters whose resonant frequencies are near the frequency cutoff of the waveguide, where the waveguide effectively behaves as zero-index metamaterial. We show that coupling emitters to a zero-index waveguide allows one to relax the constraint on precision positioning of emitters for observing inter-emitter entanglement generation and extend the spatial scale at which the superradiance can be observed

    Design of a film surface roughness-minimizing molecular beam epitaxy

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    Molecular beam epitaxy of germanium was used along with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to study time-varying processing parameters and their effect on surface morphology. Epitaxial Ge films were deposited on highly oriented Ge(001) substrates, with reflection high-energy electron diffraction as a real-time sensor. The Monte Carlo simulations were used to model the growth process, and physical parameters were determined during growth under time-varying flux. A reduced version of the simulations was generated, enabling the application on an optimization algorithm. Temperature profiles were then computed that minimize surface roughness subject to various experimental constraints. The final roughness after two layers of growth was reduced to 0.32, compared to 0.36 at the maximum growth temperature. The study presented here is an initial demonstration of a general approach that could also be used to optimize properties in other materials and deposition processes

    Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures

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    We review the basic physics of surface-plasmon excitations occurring at metal/dielectric interfaces with special emphasis on the possibility of using such excitations for the localization of electromagnetic energy in one, two, and three dimensions, in a context of applications in sensing and waveguiding for functional photonic devices. Localized plasmon resonances occurring in metallic nanoparticles are discussed both for single particles and particle ensembles, focusing on the generation of confined light fields enabling enhancement of Raman-scattering and nonlinear processes. We then survey the basic properties of interface plasmons propagating along flat boundaries of thin metallic films, with applications for waveguiding along patterned films, stripes, and nanowires. Interactions between plasmonic structures and optically active media are also discussed

    Water-Splitting Photoelectrolysis Reaction Rate via Microscopic Imaging of Evolved Oxygen Bubbles

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    Bubble formation and growth on a water-splitting semiconductor photoelectrode under illumination with above-bandgap radiation provide a direct measurement of the gas-evolving reaction rate. Optical microscopy was used to record the bubble growth on single-crystal strontium titanate immersed in basic aqueous electrolyte and illuminated with UV light at 351/364 nm from a focused argon laser. By analyzing the bubble size as a function of time, the water-splitting reaction rate was determined for varying light intensities and was compared to photocurrent measurements. Bubble nucleation was explored on an illuminated flat surface, as well as the subsequent light scattering and electrode shielding due to the bubble. This technique allows a quantitative examination of the actual gas evolution rate during photoelectrochemical water splitting, independent of current measurements

    Purcell Enhancement of Parametric Luminescence: Bright and Broadband Nonlinear Light Emission in Metamaterials

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    Single-photon and correlated two-photon sources are important elements for optical information systems. Nonlinear downconversion light sources are robust and stable emitters of single photons and entangled photon pairs. However, the rate of downconverted light emission, dictated by the properties of low-symmetry nonlinear crystals, is typically very small, leading to significant constrains in device design and integration. In this paper, we show that the principles for spontaneous emission control (i.e. Purcell effect) of isolated emitters in nanoscale structures, such as metamaterials, can be generalized to describe the enhancement of nonlinear light generation processes such as parametric down conversion. We develop a novel theoretical framework for quantum nonlinear emission in a general anisotropic, dispersive and lossy media. We further find that spontaneous parametric downconversion in media with hyperbolic dispersion is broadband and phase-mismatch-free. We predict a 1000-fold enhancement of the downconverted emission rate with up to 105 photon pairs per second in experimentally realistic nanostructures. Our theoretical formalism and approach to Purcell enhancement of nonlinear optical processes, provides a framework for description of quantum nonlinear optical phenomena in complex nanophotonic structures.Comment: 29 pages, 10 figure

    Large Integrated Absorption Enhancement in Plasmonic Solar Cells by Combining Metallic Gratings and Antireflection Coatings

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    We describe an ultrathin solar cell architecture that combines the benefits of both plasmonic photovoltaics and traditional antireflection coatings. Spatially resolved electron generation rates are used to determine the total integrated current improvement under AM1.5G solar illumination, which can reach a factor of 1.8. The frequency-dependent absorption is found to strongly correlate with the occupation of optical modes within the structure, and the improved absorption is mainly attributed to improved coupling to guided modes rather than localized resonant modes

    Modeling, synthesis, and characterization of thin film copper oxide for solar cells

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    The modeling, growth, and characterization of Copper Oxide thin films for solar cell applications are reported. Cu_2O has several attractive properties which include its direct band gap (Eg=2.17 eV) for use in photoelectrolysis of water and use in tandem multi-junction cells. Detailed balance calculations predict efficiencies on the order of 20% while Cu_2O cells have yet to even pass 2% efficiency. The device physics model reveals that defects, particularly at the heterojunction interface, are the main reason for lowered efficiencies. Epitaxial Cu_2O (100) thin films on MgO are fabricated using RF Oxygen plasma MBE. The films are quite smooth and showed mobilites in the range of 10-100 cm^2/V*sec and carrier concentrations in the range of 10^(14)-10^(17). Finally, the epitaxial growth of Cu_2O on a MgO template is demonstrated

    Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy during initial stages of Ge growth on Si by molecular beam epitaxy

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    Using a conventional reflection high-energy electron diffraction gun together with an electron energy loss spectrometer, we have combined in situ measurements of inelastic scattering intensities from Si L2,3 and Ge L2,3 core losses with reflection electron diffraction data in order to analyze the initial stages of Ge heteroepitaxy on Si(001). Diffraction data indicate an initial layer-by-layer growth mode followed by island formation for Ge thicknesses greater than 0.8–1.1 nm. The electron energy core loss data are consistent with a simple model of grazing incidence electron scattering from the growing Ge film. Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy is found to be highly surface sensitive, and the energy resolution and data rate are also sufficiently high to suggest that reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy may be a useful real-time, in situ surface chemical probe during growth by molecular beam epitaxy
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