304 research outputs found

    Peripheral refraction validity of the Shin-Nippon SRW5000 autorefractor

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    PURPOSE: To investigate the operation of the Shin-Nippon/Grand Seiko autorefractor and whether higher-order aberrations affect its peripheral refraction measurements. METHODS: Information on instrument design, together with parameters and equations used to obtain refraction, was obtained from a patent. A model eye simulating the operating principles was tested with an optical design program. Effects of induced defocus and astigmatism on the retinal image were used to calibrate the model eye to match the patent equations. Coma and trefoil were added to assess their effects on the image. Peripheral refraction of a physical model eye was measured along four visual field meridians with the Shin-Nippon/Grand Seiko autorefractor SRW-5000 and a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer, and simulated autorefractor peripheral refraction was derived using the Zernike coefficients from the aberrometer. RESULTS: In simulation, the autorefractor's square image was changed in size by defocus, into rectangles or parallelograms by astigmatism, and into irregular shapes by coma and trefoil. In the presence of 1.0 D oblique astigmatism, errors in refraction were proportional to the higher-order aberrations, with up to 0.8 D sphere and 1.5 D cylinder for ±0.6 Όm of coma or trefoil coefficients with a 5-mm-diameter pupil. For the physical model eye, refraction with the aberrometer was similar in all visual field meridians, but refraction with the autorefractor changed more quickly along one oblique meridian and less quickly along the other oblique meridian than along the horizontal and vertical meridians. Simulations predicted that higher-order aberrations would affect refraction in oblique meridians, and this was supported by the experimental measurements with the physical model eye. CONCLUSIONS: The autorefractor's peripheral refraction measurements are valid for horizontal and vertical field meridians, but not for oblique field meridians. Similar instruments must be validated before being adopted outside their design scope

    Accommodation lags are higher in myopia than in emmetropia:Measurement methods and metrics matter

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    Purpose: To determine whether accommodative errors in emmetropes and myopes are systematically different, and the effect of using different instruments and metrics. Methods: Seventy-six adults aged 18–27 years comprising 24 emmetropes (spherical equivalent refraction of the dominant eye +0.04 ± 0.03 D) and 52 myopes (−2.73 ± 0.22 D) were included. Accommodation responses were measured with a Grand Seiko WAM-5500 and a Hartmann–Shack Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System aberrometer, using pupil plane (Zernike and Seidel refraction) and retinal image plane (neural sharpness—NS; and visual Strehl ratio for modulation transfer function—VSMTF) metrics at 40, 33 and 25 cm. Accommodation stimuli were presented to the corrected dominant eye, and responses, referenced to the corneal plane, were determined in the fellow eye. Linear mixed-effects models were used to determine influence of the refractive group, the measurement method, accommodation stimulus, age, race, parental myopia, gender and binocular measures of heterophoria, accommodative convergence/accommodation and convergence accommodation/convergence ratios. Results: Lags of accommodation were affected significantly by the measurement method (p < 0.001), the refractive group (p = 0.003), near heterophoria (p = 0.002) and accommodative stimulus (p < 0.05), with significant interactions between some of these variables. Overall, emmetropes had smaller lags of accommodation than myopes with respective means ± standard errors of 0.31 ± 0.08 D and 0.61 ± 0.06 D (p = 0.003). Lags were largest for the Grand Seiko and Zernike defocus, intermediate for NS and VSMTF, and least for Seidel defocus. Conclusions: The mean lag of accommodation in emmetropes is approximately equal to the previously reported depth of focus. Myopes had larger (double) lags than emmetropes. Differences between methods and instruments could be as great as 0.50 D, and this must be considered when comparing studies and outcomes. Accommodative lag increased with the accommodation stimulus, but only for methods using a fixed small pupil diameter.</p

    Ciliary muscle dimension changes with accommodation vary in myopia and emmetropia

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    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether accommodation-induced changes in ciliary muscle dimensions vary between emmetropes and myopes, and the effect of the image analysis method. Methods: Seventy adults aged 18 to 27 years consisted of 25 people with emmetropia (spherical equivalent refraction [SER] +0.21 ± 0.36 diopters [D]) and 45 people with myopia (-2.84 ± 1.72 D). There were 23 people with low myopia (>-3 D) and 22 people with moderate myopia (-3 to -6 D). Right eye ciliary muscles were imaged (Visante OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec) at 0 D and 6 D demands. Measures included ciliary muscle length (CML), ciliary muscle curved length (CMLarc), maximum ciliary muscle thickness (CMTmax), CMT1, CMT2, and CMT3 (fixed distances 1-3 mm from the scleral spur), CM25, CM50, and CM75 (proportional distances 25%-75%). Linear mixed model analysis determined effects of refractive groups, race, and demand on dimensions. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Myopic eyes had greater CML and CMLarc nasally than emmetropic eyes. Myopic eyes had thicker muscles than emmetropic eyes at nasal positions, except CM25 and CMT3, and at CM75 temporally. During accommodation and only nasally, CML reduced in emmetropic and myopic eyes, and CMLarc reduced in myopic eyes only. During accommodation, both nasally and temporally, muscles thickened anteriorly (CMT1 and CM25) and thinned posteriorly (CMT3 and CM75) except for temporal CM75. Moderate myopic eyes had greater temporal CMLarc than low myopic eyes, and the moderate myopes had thicker muscles both nasally and temporally using fixed and proportional distances. Conclusions: People with myopia had longer and thicker ciliary muscles than people with emmetropia. During accommodation, the anterior muscle thickened and the curved nasal muscle length shortened, more in myopic than in emmetropic eyes. The fixed distance method is recommended for repeat measures in the same individual. The proportional distance method is recommended for comparisons between refractive groups

    Lens shape and refractive index distribution in type 1 diabetes

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    To compare lens dimensions and refractive index distributions in type 1 diabetes and age-matched control groups.There were 17 participants with type 1 diabetes, consisting of two subgroups (7 young [23 ± 4 years] and 10 older [54 ± 4 years] participants), with 23 controls (13 young, 24 ± 4 years; 10 older, 55 ± 4 years). For each participant, one eye was tested with relaxed accommodation. A 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used to image the eye, employing a multiple spin echo (MSE) sequence to determine lens dimensions and refractive index profiles along the equatorial and axial directions.The diabetes group had significantly smaller lens equatorial diameters and larger lens axial thicknesses than the control group (diameter mean ± 95% confidence interval [CI]: diabetes group 8.65 ± 0.26 mm, control group 9.42 ± 0.18 mm; axial thickness: diabetes group 4.33 ± 0.30 mm, control group 3.80 ± 0.14 mm). These differences were also significant within each age group. The older group had significantly greater axial thickness than the young group (older group 4.35 ± 0.26 mm, young group 3.70 ± 0.25 mm). Center refractive indices of diabetes and control groups were not significantly different. There were some statistically significant differences between the refractive index fitting parameters of young and older groups, but not between diabetes and control groups of the same age.Smaller lens diameters occurred in the diabetes groups than in the age-matched control groups. Differences in refractive index distribution between persons with and without diabetes are too small to have important effects on instruments measuring axial thickness

    IMI - Clinical Myopia Control Trials and Instrumentation Report

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    The evidence-basis based on existing myopia control trials along with the supporting academic literature were reviewed; this informed recommendations on the outcomes suggested from clinical trials aimed at slowing myopia progression to show the effectiveness of treatments and the impact on patients. These outcomes were classified as primary (refractive error and/or axial length), secondary (patient reported outcomes and treatment compliance), and exploratory (peripheral refraction, accommodative changes, ocular alignment, pupil size, outdoor activity/lighting levels, anterior and posterior segment imaging, and tissue biomechanics). The currently available instrumentation, which the literature has shown to best achieve the primary and secondary outcomes, was reviewed and critiqued. Issues relating to study design and patient selection were also identified. These findings and consensus from the International Myopia Institute members led to final recommendations to inform future instrumentation development and to guide clinical trial protocols

    Health, Lifestyle, and Psycho-Social Determinants of Poor Sleep Quality During the Early Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Focus on UK Older Adults Deemed Clinically Extremely Vulnerable

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    Background: Several studies have assessed the impact of COVID-19-relatedlockdownson sleep quality across global populations. However, no study to date has specifically assessed at-riskpopulations, particularly those at highest risk of complications from coronavirus infection deemed “clinically-extremely-vulnerable-(COVID-19CEV)” [as defined by Public Health England, 2020].Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 5,558 adults aged ≄50 years (of whom 523 met criteria for COVID-19CEV) during the first pandemic wave that resulted in a nationwide-lockdown (April-June 2020) with assessments of sleep quality (an adapted sleep scale that captured multiple sleep indices before and during the lockdown), health/medical, lifestyle, psychosocial and socio demographic factors. We examined associations between these variablesand sleep quality;and explored interactions of COVID-19CEV status with significant predictors of poor sleep,to identify potential moderating factors. Results: 37% of participants reported poor sleep quality which was associated with younger age, female sex and multimorbidity. Significant associations with poor sleep included health/medical factors: COVID-19 CEV status, higher BMI, arthritis, pulmonary disease, and mental health disorders; and the following lifestyle and psychosocial factors: living alone, higher alcohol consumption, an unhealthy diet and higher depressive and anxiety symptoms. Moderators of the negative relationship between COVID-19 CEV status and good sleep quality were marital status, loneliness, anxiety and diet. Within this subgroup, less anxious and less lonely males, as well as females with healthier diets, reported better sleep. Conclusions: Sleep quality in older adults was compromised during the sudden unprecedented nation-wide lockdown due to distinct modifiable factors. An important contribution of our study is the assessment of a “clinically-extremely-vulnerable” population and the sex differences identified within this group. Male and female older adults deemed COVID-19 CEV may benefit from targeted mental health and dietary interventions, respectively. This work extends the available evidence on the notable impact of lack of social interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep, and provides recommendations towards areas for future work, including research into vulnerability factors impacting sleep disruption and COVID-19-related complications. Study results may inform tailored interventions targeted at modifiable risk factors to promote optimal sleep; additionally, providing empirical data to support health policy development in this area

    Twin peaks: the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 BA.1 and BA.2 epidemics in England

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    BACKGROUND Rapid transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has led to record-breaking incidence rates around the world. Sub-lineages have been detected in many countries with BA.1 replacing Delta and BA.2 replacing BA.1. METHODS The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study has tracked SARS-CoV-2 infection in England using RT-PCR results from self-administered throat and nose swabs from randomly-selected participants aged 5+ years. Rounds of data collection were approximately monthly from May 2020 to March 2022. RESULTS In March 2022, weighted prevalence was 6.37% (N=109,181), more than twice that in February 2022 following an initial Omicron peak in January 2022. Of the lineages determined by viral genome sequencing, 3,382 (99.97%) were Omicron, including 346 (10.2%) BA.1, 3035 (89.7%) BA.2 and one (0.03%) BA.3 sub-lineage; the remainder (1, 0.03%) was Delta AY.4. The BA.2 Omicron sub-lineage had a growth rate advantage (compared to BA.1 and sub-lineages) of 0.11 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.10, 0.11). Prevalence was increasing overall (reproduction number R=1.07, 95% CrI, 1.06, 1.09), with the greatest increase in those aged 55+ years (R=1.12, 95% CrI, 1.09, 1.14) among whom estimated prevalence on March 31, 2022 was 8.31%, nearly 20-fold the median prevalence since May 1, 2020. CONCLUSIONS We observed unprecedented levels of SARS-CoV-2 infection in England in March 2022 and an almost complete replacement of Omicron BA.1 by BA.2. The high and increasing prevalence in older adults may increase hospitalizations and deaths despite high levels of vaccination. (Funded by the Department of Health and Social Care in England.

    Exponential growth, high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2, and vaccine effectiveness associated with the Delta variant.

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    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections were rising during early summer 2021 in many countries as a result of the Delta variant. We assessed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction swab positivity in the Real-time Assessment of Community Transmission–1 (REACT-1) study in England. During June and July 2021, we observed sustained exponential growth with an average doubling time of 25 days, driven by complete replacement of the Alpha variant by Delta and by high prevalence at younger, less-vaccinated ages. Prevalence among unvaccinated people [1.21% (95% credible interval 1.03%, 1.41%)] was three times that among double-vaccinated people [0.40% (95% credible interval 0.34%, 0.48%)]. However, after adjusting for age and other variables, vaccine effectiveness for double-vaccinated people was estimated at between ~50% and ~60% during this period in England. Increased social mixing in the presence of Delta had the potential to generate sustained growth in infections, even at high levels of vaccination.The study was funded by the Department of Health and Social Care in England. Sequencing was provided through funding from the COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) Consortium. P.E. is Director of the Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Environment and Health (MR/L01341X/1, MR/S019669/1). P.E. acknowledges support from Health Data Research UK (HDR UK); the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Imperial Biomedical Research Centre; NIHR Health Protection Research Units (HPRUs) in Chemical and Radiation Threats and Hazards, and Environmental Exposures and Health; the British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence at Imperial College London (RE/18/4/34215); and the UK Dementia Research Institute at Imperial (MC_PC_17114). S.R., C.A.D. acknowledge support: MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, NIHR HPRU in Modelling and Health Economics, Wellcome Trust (200861/Z/16/Z, 200187/Z/15/Z), and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (US, U01CK0005-01-02). G.C. is supported by an NIHR Professorship. H.War. acknowledges support from an NIHR Senior Investigator Award and the Wellcome Trust (205456/Z/16/Z). We thank The Huo Family Foundation for their support of our work on COVID-19. Quadram authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); their research was funded by the BBSRC Institute Strategic Programme Microbes in the Food Chain BB/R012504/1 and its constituent project BBS/E/F/000PR10352. We thank members of the COVID-19 Genomics Consortium UK (COG-UK) for their contributions to generating the genomic data used in this study. COG-UK is supported by funding from the MRC, part of UK Research & Innovation (UKRI), NIHR and Genome Research Limited, operating as the Wellcome Sanger Institute