44 research outputs found

    Book Review

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    Extracts of tamarillo, horned melon, and raspberries, but not extract of pear, inhibit human blood platelet aggregation: Investigating the underlying factors for their differential mechanisms

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    Fruit extracts may be cardioprotective via favorable modulation of platelet-blood vessel interaction. We here show that sugar-free extracts of tamarillo, horned melon (kiwano), and raspberry in a dose-dependent manner inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma. In contrast, pear extract had no such effect. Furthermore, analysisof untargeted metabolites revealed the presence of platelet inhibitory components such as benzoic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid in the sugar-free extracts of tamarillo, raspberry, and kiwano, but not in pear extract. All these three fruit extracts inhibited the platelet production of TxB2 and the release of platelet factor 4. In conclusion, our work suggests that tamarillo, raspberry, and kiwano inhibit platelet aggregation partly due to the high levels of anti-platelet compounds such as benzoic, caffeic, and gallic acids

    Maternal obesity and gut microbiota are associated with fetal brain development

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    Obesity in pregnancy induces metabolic syndrome, low-grade inflammation, altered endocrine factors, placental function, and the maternal gut microbiome. All these factors impact fetal growth and development, including brain development. The lipid metabolic transporters of the maternalfetal- placental unit are dysregulated in obesity. Consequently, the transport of essential long-chain PUFAs for fetal brain development is disturbed. The mother’s gut microbiota is vital in maintaining postnatal energy homeostasis and maternal-fetal immune competence. Obesity during pregnancy changes the gut microbiota, affecting fetal brain development. Obesity and a high-fat diet in pregnancy can induce placental and intrauterine inflammation and thus influence the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopment. This review discusses the effects of maternal obesity and gut microbiota on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. In addition, the possible mechanisms of the impacts of obesity and gut microbiota on fetal brain development are discussed

    Evaluation of the equivalence of different intakes of Fruitflow in affecting platelet aggregation and thrombin generation capacity in a randomized, double-blinded pilot study in male subjects

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    Background The water-soluble tomato extract, Fruitflow® is a dietary antiplatelet which can be used to lower platelet aggregability in primary preventative settings. We carried out a pilot study to investigate the range of intakes linked to efficacy and to make an initial assessment of variability in response to Fruitflow®. Methods Platelet response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) agonist and thrombin generation capacity were monitored at baseline and 24 h after consuming 0, 30, 75, 150 or 300 mg of Fruitflow® in a randomized, double-blinded crossover study in male subjects 30–65 years of age (N = 12). Results were evaluated for equivalence to the standard 150 mg dose. Results Results showed that the changes from baseline aggregation and thrombin generation observed after the 75 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg supplements were equivalent. Aggregation was reduced from baseline by − 12.9 ± 17.7%, − 12.0 ± 13.9% and − 17.7 ± 15.7% respectively, while thrombin generation capacity fell by − 8.6 ± 4.1%, − 9.2 ± 3.1% and − 11.3 ± 2.3% respectively. Effects observed for 0 mg and 30 mg supplements were non-equivalent to 150 mg and not different from baseline (aggregation changed by 3.0 ± 5.0% and − 0.7 ± 10.2% respectively, while thrombin generation changed by 0.8 ± 3.0% and 0.8 ± 3.1% respectively). Conclusions The data suggest that the efficacious range for Fruitflow® lies between 75 mg and 300 mg, depending on the individual. It may be pertinent to personalize the daily intake of Fruitflow® depending on individual platelet response. Trial registration ISRCTN53447583, 24/02/2021

    Bioactives and their roles in bone metabolism of osteoarthritis: evidence and mechanisms on gut-bone axis

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    Bioactives significantly modify and maintain human health. Available data suggest that Bioactives might play a beneficial role in chronic inflammatory diseases. Although promised, defining their mechanisms and opting to weigh their benefits and limitations is imperative. Detailed mechanisms by which critical Bioactives, including probiotics and prebiotics such as dietary lipids (DHA, EPA, alpha LA), vitamin D, polysaccharides (fructooligosaccharide), polyphenols (curcumin, resveratrol, and capsaicin) potentially modulate inflammation and bone metabolism is limited. Certain dietary bioactive significantly impact the gut microbiota, immune system, and pain response via the gut-immune-bone axis. This narrative review highlights a recent update on mechanistic evidence that bioactive is demonstrated demonstrated to reduce osteoarthritis pathophysiology

    Bioactive food components and their inhibitory actions in multiple platelet pathways

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    In addition to hemostasis and thrombosis, blood platelets are involved in various processes such as inflammation, infection, immunobiology, cancer metastasis, wound repair and angiogenesis. Platelets\u27 hemostatic and non-hemostatic functions are mediated by the expression of various membrane receptors and the release of proteins, ions and other mediators. Therefore, specific activities of platelets responsible for the non-hemostatic disease are to be inhibited while leaving the platelet\u27s hemostatic function unaffected. Platelets\u27 anti-aggregatory property has been used as a primary criterion for antiplatelet drugs/bioactives; however, their non-hemostatic activities are not well known. This review describes the hemostatic and non-hemostatic function of human blood platelets and the modulatory effects of bioactive food components. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In this review, we have discussed the antiplatelet effects of several food components. These bioactive compounds inhibit both hemostatic and non-hemostatic pathways involving blood platelet. Platelets have emerged as critical biological factors of normal and pathologic vascular healing and other diseases such as cancers and inflammatory and immune disorders. The challenge for therapeutic intervention in these disorders will be to find drugs and bioactive compounds that preferentially block specific sites implicated in emerging roles of platelets\u27 complicated contribution to inflammation, tumour growth, or other disorders while leaving at least some of their hemostatic function intact

    Applications of nanotechnologies for miRNA-based cancer therapeutics: current advances and future perspectives

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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (18–25 nt), non-coding, widely conserved RNA molecules responsible for regulating gene expression via sequence-specific post-transcriptional mechanisms. Since the human miRNA transcriptome regulates the expression of a number of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, its dysregulation is associated with the clinical onset of different types of cancer. Despite the fact that numerous therapeutic approaches have been designed in recent years to treat cancer, the complexity of the disease manifested by each patient has prevented the development of a highly effective disease management strategy. However, over the past decade, artificial miRNAs (i.e., anti-miRNAs and miRNA mimics) have shown promising results against various cancer types; nevertheless, their targeted delivery could be challenging. Notably, numerous reports have shown that nanotechnology-based delivery of miRNAs can greatly contribute to hindering cancer initiation and development processes, representing an innovative disease-modifying strategy against cancer. Hence, in this review, we evaluate recently developed nanotechnology-based miRNA drug delivery systems for cancer therapeutics and discuss the potential challenges and future directions, such as the promising use of plant-made nanoparticles, phytochemical-mediated modulation of miRNAs, and nanozymes

    Supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (Actinidia chinensis var.'Hort 16A':) effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, DNA stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. Our hypothesis was that supplementation of a normal diet with kiwifruits would have an effect on biomarkers of oxidative status. Healthy volunteers supplemented a normal diet with either one or two golden kiwifruits per day in a cross-over study lasting 2 × 4 weeks. Plasma levels of vitamin C, and carotenoids, and the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) were measured. Malondialdehyde was assessed as a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Effects on DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes were estimated using the comet assay with enzyme modification to measure specific lesions; another modification allowed estimation of DNA repair.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Plasma vitamin C increased after supplementation as did resistance towards H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced DNA damage. Purine oxidation in lymphocyte DNA decreased significantly after one kiwifruit per day, pyrimidine oxidation decreased after two fruits per day. Neither DNA base excision nor nucleotide excision repair was influenced by kiwifruit consumption. Malondialdehyde was not affected, but plasma triglycerides decreased. Whole blood platelet aggregation was decreased by kiwifruit supplementation.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Golden kiwifruit consumption strengthens resistance towards endogenous oxidative damage.</p

    Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers

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    Background Plant-based diets rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent development of several chronic age-related diseases. However, the mechanisms behind this protective effect are not elucidated. We have tested the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant-rich foods can affect groups of genes associated with cellular stress defence in human blood cells. Trial registration number: NCT00520819 http://clinicaltrials.gov. Methods In an 8-week dietary intervention study, 102 healthy male smokers were randomised to either a diet rich in various antioxidant-rich foods, a kiwifruit diet (three kiwifruits/d added to the regular diet) or a control group. Blood cell gene expression profiles were obtained from 10 randomly selected individuals of each group. Diet-induced changes on gene expression were compared to controls using a novel application of the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on transcription profiles obtained using Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus 2.0 whole genome arrays. Results Changes were observed in the blood cell gene expression profiles in both intervention groups when compared to the control group. Groups of genes involved in regulation of cellular stress defence, such as DNA repair, apoptosis and hypoxia, were significantly upregulated (GSEA, FDR q-values < 5%) by both diets compared to the control group. Genes with common regulatory motifs for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (AhR/ARNT) were upregulated by both interventions (FDR q-values < 5%). Plasma antioxidant biomarkers (polyphenols/carotenoids) increased in both groups. Conclusions The observed changes in the blood cell gene expression profiles suggest that the beneficial effects of a plant-based diet on human health may be mediated through optimization of defence processes

    Fetal growth and development: Roles of fatty acid transport proteins and nuclear transcription factors in human placenta

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    747-757In the feto-placental unit, preferential transport of maternal plasma arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:5n-3) across the placenta is of critical importance for fetal growth and development. More than 90 per cent of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. All of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid structures acquired by the fetus have to cross the placenta and fetal blood are enriched in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) relative to the maternal supply. Fatty acids cross the placental microvillous and basal membranes by simple diffusion and via the action of membrane bound (FAT, FATP and p-FABPpm) and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). The direction and magnitude of fatty acid flux is mainly dictated by the relative abundance of available binding sites. The existence of a fatty-acid-transport system comprising multiple binding proteins in human placenta may be essential to facilitate the preferential transport of maternal plasma fatty acids in order to meet the requirements of the growing fetus. The critical importance of long-chain fatty acids in cellular homeostasis demands an efficient uptake system for these fatty acids and their metabolism in tissues. In fact, involvement of several nuclear transcription factors (PPARγ, LXR, RXR, and SREBP-1) is critical in the expression of genes responsible for fatty acids uptake, placental trophoblast differentiation and hCG production. These indicate that these receptors are potential regulators of placental lipid transfer and homeostasis. This review discusses importance of nuclear receptors and fatty acid binding/transport proteins in placental fatty acid uptake, transport and metabolism
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