371 research outputs found

    Development of micropropagation system for yam (Dioscorea spp.) using somatic embryogenesis

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    Inadequate availability of disease-free planting materials remains a major constraint to yam production. The tissue culture technique has been used to regenerate disease-free plantlets from pre-formed, heattreated meristems followed by micropropagation. This procedure, however, has a low multiplication ratio with an average of 1: 4 every eight weeks. Embryo production from somatic cells (somatic embryogenesis, SE) is a system in which each somatic cell can regenerate a complete plantlet. However, previous reports show low SE induction frequencies and significant variations in success rates among different genotypes while hardly any report exist for improved varieties that farmers desire, especially in Nigeria. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on induction of somatic embryogenesis of the following genotypes: one improved Dioscorea alata (TDa 291) and three improved (TDr 95/19177, TDr 89/2665, TDr 95/18544) and one landrace (Obioturugo) of Dioscorea rotundata. Leaf, stem, and axillary bud explants were cultured in MS basal medium containing fifteen treatment combinations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), Benzylaminopurine (BAP), Picloram, and Uniconazole-P (UP). The genotype TDr 95/19177 was tested for SE in Temorary Immersion Bioreactor System (TIBS). The incidence of induction of callus formation and plantlet regeneration from the three explants were recorded. Embryogenic callus induction was highest (87%) from axillary buds cultured on modified MS + 2 mg/l of 2,4-D + 1 mg/l of NAA while 1 mg/l of BAP + 9. 9 mg/l of UP had the highest percentage plantlet regeneration of 50% in TDr 95/18544 and an average of 37% across genotypes at a mean of 5 plantlets per explant. The genotype TDr 95/19177 was successfully regenerated via indirect somatic embryogenesis in the SETIS Type Temporary Immersion Bioreactor System

    Seed yam production in an aeroponics system: a novel technology

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    Seed yam production from minisetts: a training manual

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    Hybridization of yams: a minireview

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    Novelty, rapidity and quality in seed yam production: the case of Temporary Immersion Bioreactors

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    Incidence and diversity of mixed viruses lower in yam tubers and tuber sprouts compared with field leaf samples: Implications for virusfree planting material control strategy

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    Millions of people around the world, particularly in West Africa, depend on yam for food and income, however global yam production has been fluctuating since 2007. Virus infections contribute to yam yield losses and the occurrence of mixed virus infections is potentially catastrophic. Planting of certified virus-free/resistant tubers is advocated therefore knowledge of the role of yam planting material in the virus dynamics in yam fields is crucial for effective yam virus control. In this study, yam tubers bought from markets in six West African countries were planted in an insect proof screen-house. Leaf samples from the tuber sprouts were tested by ELISA and/or IC-PCR/IC-RT-PCR to determine the incidence of Yam mosaic virus, Yam mild mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and Dioscorea Bacilliform viruses. Yam tubers from Nigeria and Ghana, as well as yam leaves collected from yam fields in Nigeria were also tested. All the viruses assayed for were detected. Most of the virus infections detected in the tuber (83%) and tuber sprouts (95%) were single infections of either Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBV) or Yam mosaic virus (YMV). The incidence of mixed infection in the field samples (49.3%) was about 3 times and 10 times more than those detected in the tubers (17%) and the tuber sprouts (5%). These results suggest that other factors other than the tubers used as planting materials contribute to the vast incidence of mixed virus infections in yam fields. These factors must be properly appraised and be factored into any yam virus control strategy equation in order to achieve a sustainable yam production in West Africa in particular and the world in general

    Harnessing modern biotechnology for tropical tuber crop improvement: Yam (Dioscorea spp.) molecular breeding

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    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) constitute a staple food crop for over 100 million people in the humid and subhumid tropics. They are polyploid and vegetatively propagated. The Guinea yams, Dioscorea rotundata and D. cayenensis, are the most important yams in West and Central Africa where they are indigenous, while D. alata (referred to as water yam) is the most widely distributed species globally. The genetics of yams is least understood among the major staple food crops due to several biological constraints and research neglect. Research to unravel the apparent complexity of the yam genome will have far-reaching implications for genetic improvement of this important tuber crop. Some progress has been made in recent years in germplasm characterization and the development of molecular markers for genome analysis. A genetic linkage map based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers has been constructed for Guinea and water yams. These linkage maps were used to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with genes conferring resistance to Yam Mosaic Virus (YMV) in D. rotundata and anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in D. alata. In addition, candidate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers associated with major genes controlling resistance to YMV and anthracnose have been identified that could be used for selection and pyramiding of YMV and anthracnose resistance genes in yam improvement. Also, molecular markers such as RAPDs, AFLPs, and microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been developed for yam genome analysis. An initial c-DNA library has been constructed in order to develop expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for gene discovery and as a source of additional molecular markers. This paper will review the advances made, discuss the implications for yam genetic improvement and germplasm conservation, and outline the direction for future research. Key words: Genetic mapping, genome analysis, molecular breeding, PCR-based markers, QTLs, resistance genes, yam. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp. 478-485, December 200

    Interspecific crossing between yam species (Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea bulbifera) through in vitro ovule culture

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    In the present study, in vitro ovule culture technique was used to obtain interspecific cross combination of Dioscorea rotundata ufenyi and Dioscorea bulbifera wild. Ten days after pollination, ovules were excised and cultured onto 1/2 strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Basal salt mixture + Vitamins) supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.7% agar and plant growth hormones such as GA3, BAP, Picrolam and TDZ. Cultured ovules were transferred on 1/2 MS medium with 3% sucrose and 0.7% agar after three weeks. 40 days after pollination, germination was observed from 7 months cultured ovule between D. rotundata ufenyi x D. bulbifera wild. Hybridity of the regenerated plant was checked by flow cytometric method. A close relation was observed between the fluorescence intensity of the obtained progeny with one of the parents’ fluorescence. The observed progeny can be closely correlated with an apomictic tissue from an ovule parent of D. rotundata ufenyi. Plantlets derived from ovule culture were proliferated through in vitro shoot multiplication with hormonal concentration (0.5 mg/l BAP) supplemented with 1/2 strength MS medium. Obtained ovule culture derived in vitro plantlets were successfully hardened, acclimatized and transferred to the field, where they survived and grew normally. In plant breeding, interspecific crossing is very important technique, enabling the time needed to produce homozygous lines to be shortened as compared to the conventional plant breeding techniques

    Comparison of physicochemical properties of soils under contrasting land use systems in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Soil physicochemical properties were determined for soils under cropland and forest at the headquarters of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria to examine the 30-year effects of different land use on the fertility of five soil series toposequences underlain by a Basement Complex. The cropland had been under cultivation for 30 years, during which mainly maize and yams had been cultivated in rotation with application of chemical fertilizer and intermittent fallow, while the forest had secondary vegetation that had been regenerated during a 30-year period under protection. The findings for cropland indicated an accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, soil compaction and slight depletion of topsoil organic carbon content; and the findings for forest indicated soil acidification and accumulation of exchangeable Ca at the surface soil horizon. These findings suggest the possibility of maintaining soil fertility with a long-term intensive and continuous crop farming system in kaolinitic Alfisol soil over the inland valley toposequences of tropical Africa
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