1,874 research outputs found

    Property Taxation in the People\u27s Republic of China

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    A property tax is a general tax imposed on all property owners based on the value of their properties. Property taxation is common throughout the world due to its numerous advantages. It is regarded as a steady source of local government revenue. The property taxation system in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is still developing and does not include important features that would make it efficient. For instance, residential property is excluded from the tax base. This has contributed to real estate speculation, income disparity, and revenue losses. A well-functioning local property tax system in the PRC would provide an efficient, equitable and sustainable way to finance local development and government spending. By helping to align expenditure responsibilities with revenue allocations at the local level, property taxation could reduce inequality in the provision of public goods and foster local government ability to provide them. Further, it will reduce the incentive for speculative behavior mitigating housing bubbles. To further develop property taxation in the PRC it is recommended to gradually strengthen and expand the existing pilots, supported by clear principles on the delegation of taxation responsibilities, the definition of a nationally standardized tax base, an affordable tax rate, and enhanced local government capacity

    Gender Equality and Social Inclusion Assessment of the Energy Sector: Enhancing Social Sustainability of Energy Development in Nepal

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    In Nepal, deeply embedded structural conditions determined by gender, caste or ethnicity, religion, language, and even geography have made access to and benefits from energy resources highly uneven. Women, the poor, and excluded groups experience energy poverty more severely. To address this imbalance, the government and other stakeholders have introduced measures to achieve greater gender equality and social inclusion. This study is an attempt to understand the factors affecting the outcomes and extent to which the initiatives have fostered gender equality and social inclusion. The study recommends measures to facilitate the distributive impact of energy sector development if Nepal is to meet its target of ensuring energy access to all

    Cambodia’s New Technical and Vocational Education and Training Policy

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    Key Points: Cambodia’s demographic divident offers great opportunities, but its human resource base remains largely low-skilled. It will be critical for Cambodia not only to improve education and technical and vocational training for young people entering the labor market, but also to upgrade the skills of the existing workforce. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is indispensable to socioeconomic development as it produces the skilled workers and technicians an evolving and modernizing labor market needs. The National TVET Policy will guide the government’s skills development strategies and coordinate all parties involved. The policy presents a clear vision, goals, objectives, and strategies to develop human resources with the competencies and skills that promote socioeconomic development today and in the future

    Gender Equality Results Case Study - Bangladesh: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Development Project

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    Development Aims and Impacts. The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Development Project supported the development and expansion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh from 2009 to 2013. In specific pilot districts, the number of women-owned SMEs increased by over 10%. The training of women SME owners in business development, accounting, loan application rules and processes, and in the regulations governing businesses facilitated their improved access to institutional finance. The formation of advocacy groups and membership in different associations enhanced the confidence of women SME owners and their ability to lobby for policy changes. Dialogue and relation building between participating financial institutions and women’s SME associations helped foster mutual understanding and cooperation, leading to better outcomes for women-owned SMEs. Participating financial institution policies and products require further adaptation to meet the needs and circumstances of women- owned SMEs. ADB Processes and Management. Overall, factors that contributed to the project’s gender equality results were (i) inclusion of a technical assistance (TA) element that specifically focused on women entrepreneurs; (ii) single-source selection of the Bangladesh Women Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BWCCI) as the implementing agency for the TA; (iii) proactive role of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in managing the project; and (iv) rapport established between the Ministry of Finance, the Bangladesh Bank, ADB, and the BWCCI. The project also led to unexpected positive results, especially in the area of policy changes favoring women-owned SMEs. The project epitomizes a successful public–private partnership in TA through the joint and complementary working relationship among the Ministry of Finance, the Bangladesh Bank, and the BWCCI

    Gender Equality in the Labor Market in the Philippines

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    This report on gender equality in the labor market in the Philippines is drawn from studies by a team of international consultants selected by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for a technical assistance project on promoting gender equality in Asian labor markets for inclusive growth, implemented in cooperation with the International Labour Office (ILO), Bangkok. This report comprises a gendered analysis of the Philippines’ labor market, policies, and legislation, and provides recommendations for policies and legislation that have the potential to expand or improve employment and work opportunities for women in specific sectors in the Philippines. The report provides a summary of findings and recommendations that are specifically relevant for the Philippines from an analysis of gender equality and the labor markets in Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines, and two global good practice reviews: one on social and economic policy and the other on legislation (ADB 2013a; ADB and ILO 2013a; ADB and ILO 2013b)

    Gender Equality Results Case Study - India: Urban Water Supply and Environmental Improvement Project

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    Development Aims and Impacts. The Urban Water Supply and Environmental Improvement Project sought to provide basic services of water supply, sanitation, and garbage collection and disposal in four cities in Madhya Pradesh, India. Impacts include increased access to sustainable water supply and enhanced sanitation infrastructure in these four cities. Over 5.6 million people benefited from improved water supply, while half a million people benefited from an improved wastewater management system and 4.7 million people benefited from an improved solid waste management system. These changes positively impacted the lives of the local community, in particular women and girls, who are primarily responsible for water management. The active participation of women was encouraged and supported, and over 70% of the members of the community group committees (CGCs) were women. The CGCs were responsible for coordinating and overseeing the initiatives concerning water supply and sanitation, and they continue to operate even after the completion of the project, liaising with local government officials. Women built on skills developed during the social mobilization initiatives and other project activities to ensure improved income generation, with many of them continuing to be active leaders at the community level. ADB Processes and Management Tools. The project design included a gender action plan. A gender manual was developed to guide the integration of gender in the project. Special measures were taken to ensure women’s participation in community-driven planning and decision making. Targets for participation of women in community-based organizations or CGCs were closely monitored, and variations were followed up by both the nongovernment organizations—responsible for organizing, mobilizing, and capacity building of CGCs—and the project staff. The project also partnered with other organizations with capacities related to gender equality that helped in the initial gender analysis of the water and sanitation sector

    Toward Adopting a Skills Development Fund for Cambodia

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    Key Points: Cambodia is endowed with an ample supply of labor, but the labor force is characterized by low levels of education and skills. As technological change and competitiveness increase, there is a growing demand for an adaptable workforce with both cognitive and noncognitive skills. The government has an important role in ensuring access to basic education and technical and vocational training to a qualification and standard that supports entry into the workforce, but partnership with industry in workforce development is even more essential in responding to the changing demands of technology in the workplace. Countries are exploring different partnership models toward ensuring actual training is funded and driven by industry. Experiences also show that industry is a reluctant partner at the outset, and that piloting a skills development scheme to build credibility and confidence among partners, especially industry, is important before a full-fledged skills development fund can be established

    Office of Anticorruption and Integrity: Annual Report 2013

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    [Excerpt] Corruption is not single-celled. It does not move in just one direction and has many causes and symptoms. It has no single cure and will continue to grow and fester unless addressed from multiple fronts. The Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Office of Anticorruption and Integrity (OAI) recognizes that tackling corruption requires a multifaceted approach and a comprehensive network of partnerships and alliances. Tasked to ensure that the finite development funds entrusted to ADB are not misused as a result of fraud and corruption, OAI relies on close collaborations with internal and external partners and stakeholders to fulfill its mandate. OAI’s mandate is underpinned by ADB’s zero tolerance to corruption. It is aligned with ADB’s broader commitment to combat corruption and improve governance as a core strategic objective of ADB Strategy 2020, and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness of 2005—to which ADB is a signatory—in support of effective, transparent, and accountable aid. More than ever, in 2013 OAI’s anticorruption work focused on prevention, oversight, investigation, and deterrence through partnership, awareness raising, and outreach. Its achievements in 2013 reflect OAI’s close partnership and teamwork with ADB’s governance and operations departments as well as external partners to address fraud, corruption, abuse of resources, and other violations that undermine the integrity and effectiveness of ADB-funded activities

    Pacific Economic Monitor: Budget Analysis

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    The Monitor provides an update of developments in Pacific economies and explores topical policy issues

    Contract Farming for Better Farmer-Enterprise Partnerships: ADB\u27s Experience in the People\u27s Republic of China

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    [Excerpt] Agriculture should provide safe and nutritious food to people. In the People’s Republic of China (PRC ) and many other developing members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), agriculture is also the main source of income for rural residents. Yet as compared with the total labor force absorption, the contribution of agriculture to gross domestic product is very small, suggesting lower productivity, often resulting in poverty. Recognizing the invaluable contribution of agriculture to the PRC ’s development, the government has been prioritizing agricultural modernization in its policy agenda with an aim to further improve the agricultural sector’s productivity and efficiency. ADB’s support to the sustainable development of agriculture in the PRC covers broad areas ranging from irrigation infrastructure and farmland upgrading to agribusiness development and food safety. The Dryland Sustainable Agriculture project commenced in 2009 with ADB assistance supports the development of partnerships between private agro-enterprises and farmers using contract farming arrangements to strengthen farm productivity, food production, and processing capacity in 27 counties in Gansu, Henan, and Shandong provinces. After 6 years, the project has delivered considerable amount of outputs in terms of facilities established and farmers engaged, showing promise in achieving its outcome. Concurring with the request from the Ministry of Agriculture, the project executing agency, ADB provided a grant to study the experiences arising from the project with respect to developing sustainable farmer–enterprise partnerships particularly contract farming models. Equally important, the study examines the issues involved in current contract farming practices and recommends policies that may help resolve them
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