3,038 research outputs found

    Modeling boron diffusion gettering of iron in silicon solar cells

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    In this paper, a model is presented for boron diffusion gettering of iron in silicon during thermal processing. In the model, both the segregation of iron due to high boron doping concentration and heterogeneous precipitation of iron to the surface of the wafer are taken into account. It is shown, by comparing simulated results with experimental ones, that this model can be used to estimate boron diffusion gettering efficiency of iron under a variety of processing conditions. Finally, the application of the model to phosphorus diffusion gettering is discussed.Peer reviewe

    Capability of GLAS/ICESat data to estimate forest canopy height and volume in mountainous forests of Iran

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    International audienceThe importance of measuring biophysical properties of forest for ecosystem health monitoring and forest management encourages researchers to find precise, yet low cost methods especially in mountainous and large area. In the present study Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat was used to estimate three biophysical characteristics of forests located in north of Iran: 1) maximum canopy height (Hmax), 2) Lorey's height (HLorey), and 3) Forest volume (V). A large number of Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR) and also Random Forest (RF) regressions were developed using different set of variables: waveform metrics, Principal Components (PCs) produced from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Wavelet Coefficients (WCs) generated from wavelet transformation. To validate and compare different models, statistical criteria were calculated based on a five-fold cross validation. The best model concerning the maximum canopy height was an MLR with an RMSE of 5.0 m which combined two metrics extracted from waveforms (waveform extent "Wext" and height at 50% of waveform energy "H50"), and one from the Digital Elevation Model (Terrain Index: TI). The mean absolute error (MAPE) of maximum canopy height estimates is about 16.4%. For Lorey's height, a simple MLR model including two metrics (Wext and TI) represents the highest performance (RMSE=5.1 m, MAPE=24.0%). Totally, MLR models showed better performance rather than RF models, and accuracy of height estimations using waveform metrics was greater than those based on PCs or WCs. Concerning forest volume, employing regression models to estimate volume directly from GLAS data led to a better result (RMSE=128.8 m3/ha) rather than volume-HLorey relationship (RMSE=167.8 m3/ha)

    Towards Estimation of Emotions From Eye Pupillometry With Low-Cost Devices

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    Emotional care is important for some patients and their caregivers. Within a clinical or home care situation, technology can be employed to remotely monitor the emotional response of such people. This paper considers pupillometry as a non-invasive way of classifying an individual's emotions. Standardized audio signals were used to emotionally stimulate the test subjects. Eye pupil images of up to 32 subjects of different genders were captured as video images by low-cost, infrared, Raspberry Pi board cameras. By processing of the images, a dataset of pupil diameters according to gender and age characteristics was established. Appropriate statistical tests for inference of the emotional state were applied to that dataset to establish the subjects' emotional states in response to the audio stimuli. Results showed agreement between the test subjects' opinions of their emotional state and the classification of emotions according to the range of pupil diameters found using the described method

    High rate, fast timing Glass RPC for the high {\eta} CMS muon detectors

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    The HL-LHC phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. To achieve this goal in a reasonable time scale the instantaneous luminosity would also increase by an order of magnitude up to 6.1034cm−2s−16.10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} . The region of the forward muon spectrometer (∣η∣>1.6|{\eta}| > 1.6) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles rate up to 2kHz/cm22 kHz/cm^{2} (including a safety factor 3) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The actual RPC technology of CMS cannot sustain the expected background level. The new technology that will be chosen should have a high rate capability and provides a good spatial and timing resolution. A new generation of Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low-resistivity (LR) glass is proposed to equip at least the two most far away of the four high η{\eta} muon stations of CMS. First the design of small size prototypes and studies of their performance in high-rate particles flux is presented. Then the proposed designs for large size chambers and their fast-timing electronic readout are examined and preliminary results are provided.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures, Conference proceeding for the 2016 Resistive Plate Chambers and Related Detector

    Small nerve fiber damage and Langerhans cells in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and LADA measured by corneal confocal microscopy

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    Purpose: Increased corneal and epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) have been reported in patients with diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to quantify the density of LCs in relation to corneal nerve morphology and the presence of diabetic neuropathy and to determine if this differed in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA). Methods: Patients with T1DM (n = 25), T2DM (n = 36), or LADA (n = 23) and control subjects (n = 23) underwent detailed assessment of peripheral neuropathy and corneal confocal microscopy. Corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), branch density (CNBD), length (CNFL) and total, immature and mature LC densities were quantified. Results: Lower CNFD (P < 0.001), CNBD (P < 0.0001), and CNFL (P < 0.0001) and higher LC density (P = 0.03) were detected in patients with T1DM, T2DM, and LADA compared to controls. CNBD was inversely correlated with mature (r = -0.5; P = 0.008), immature (r = -0.4; P = 0.02) and total (r = -0.5; P = 0.01) LC density, and CNFL was inversely correlated with immature LC density (r = -0.4; P = 0.03) in patients with T1DM but not in patients with T2DM and LADA. Conclusions: This study shows significant corneal nerve loss and an increase in LC density in patients with T1DM, T2DM, and LADA. Furthermore, increased LC density correlated with corneal nerve loss in patients with T1DM

    Diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in patients with symptoms compatible with Rome IV functional bowel disorders

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    Background There is little data on the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in patients with symptoms compatible with functional bowel disorders (FBDs). Previous studies have only focused on diagnostic outcomes of colonoscopy in those with suspected irritable bowel syndrome using historic Rome I-III criteria, whilst having partially assessed for alarm features and shown markedly conflicting results. There is also no colonoscopy outcome data for other FBDs, such as functional constipation or functional diarrhea. Aims Using the contemporaneous Rome IV criteria we determined the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in patients with symptoms compatible with a FBD, stratified diligently according to the presence or absence of alarm features Methods Basic demographics, alarm features, and bowel symptoms using the Rome IV diagnostic questionnaire were collected prospectively from adults attending out-patient colonoscopy in 2019. Endoscopists were blinded to the questionnaire data. Organic disease was defined as the presence of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, or microscopic colitis. Results 646 patients fulfilled symptom-based criteria for the following Rome IV FBDs: IBS (56%), functional diarrhea (27%) and functional constipation (17%). Almost all had alarm features (98%). The combined prevalence of organic disease was 12%, being lowest for functional constipation and IBS-constipation (∌6% each), followed by IBS-mixed (∌9%), and highest amongst functional diarrhea and IBS-diarrhea (∌17% each); p=0.005. The increased prevalence of organic disease in diarrheal versus constipation disorders was accounted for by microscopic colitis (5.7% vs. 0%, p<0.001) but not inflammatory bowel disease (7.2% vs. 4.0%, p=0.2) or colorectal cancer (4.2% vs. 2.3%, p=0.2). However, one-in-four chronic diarrhea patients - conceivably at risk for microscopic colitis - did not have colonic biopsies taken. Finally, only 11 of 646 (2%) patients were without alarm features, in whom colonoscopy was normal. Conclusion Most patients with symptoms of FBDs who are referred for colonoscopy have alarm features. The presence of organic disease is significantly higher in diarrheal versus constipation disorders, with microscopic colitis largely accounting for the difference whilst also being a missed diagnostic opportunity. In those patients without alarm features, the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy was nil

    Increased psychological distress and somatization in patients with irritable bowel syndrome compared with functional diarrhea or functional constipation, based on Rome IV criteria

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    Background The Rome IV criteria for disorders of gut‐brain interaction define irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as a functional bowel disorder associated with frequent abdominal pain of at least 1 day per week. In contrast, functional diarrhea (FD) and functional constipation (FC) are relatively painless. We compared differences in mood and somatization between Rome IV IBS and FC/FD. Methods A total of 567 patients with Rome IV defined IBS or FD/FC completed a baseline questionnaire on demographics, abdominal pain frequency, mood (hospital anxiety and depression scale, HADS), and somatization (patient health questionnaire, PHQ‐12). The primary analysis compared differences in mood and somatization between IBS and FC/FD, and the relative influence of abdominal pain frequency on these extra‐intestinal symptoms. The secondary analysis evaluated differences across individual IBS subtypes, and also between FC and FD. Key Results Patients with IBS—in comparison to those with FC/FD—had significantly higher mean PHQ‐12 somatization scores (9.1 vs. 5.4), more somatic symptoms (6.0 vs. 4.3), abnormally high somatization levels (16% vs. 3%), higher HADS score (15.0 vs. 11.7), and clinically abnormal levels of anxiety (38% vs. 20%) and depression (17% vs. 10%). Increasing abdominal pain frequency correlated positively with PHQ‐12, number of somatic symptoms, and HADS; p < 0.001. No differences in mood and somatization scores were seen between individual IBS subtypes, and nor between FC and FD. Conclusion & Inferences Based on the Rome IV criteria, IBS is associated with increased levels of psychological distress and somatization compared with FD or FC. Patients reporting frequent abdominal pain should be comprehensively screened for psychosomatic disorders, with psychological therapies considered early in the disease course

    Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

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    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time
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