95 research outputs found

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Combined Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurements in Top-Antitop Quark Production at the Tevatron

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    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron have measured the asymmetry between yields of forward- and backward-produced top and antitop quarks based on their rapidity difference and the asymmetry between their decay leptons. These measurements use the full data sets collected in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.96\sqrt s =1.96 TeV. We report the results of combinations of the inclusive asymmetries and their differential dependencies on relevant kinematic quantities. The combined inclusive asymmetry is AFBttňČ=0.128¬Ī0.025A_{\mathrm{FB}}^{t\bar{t}} = 0.128 \pm 0.025. The combined inclusive and differential asymmetries are consistent with recent standard model predictions

    Research and Development for Near Detector Systems Towards Long Term Evolution of Ultra-precise Long-baseline Neutrino Experiments

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    With the discovery of non-zero value of őł13\theta_{13} mixing angle, the next generation of long-baseline neutrino (LBN) experiments offers the possibility of obtaining statistically significant samples of muon and electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with large oscillation effects. In this document we intend to highlight the importance of Near Detector facilities in LBN experiments to both constrain the systematic uncertainties affecting oscillation analyses but also to perform, thanks to their close location, measurements of broad benefit for LBN physics goals. A strong European contribution to these efforts is possible

    Discutindo a educação ambiental no cotidiano escolar: desenvolvimento de projetos na escola formação inicial e continuada de professores

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    A presente pesquisa buscou discutir como a Educa√ß√£o Ambiental (EA) vem sendo trabalhada, no Ensino Fundamental e como os docentes desta escola compreendem e vem inserindo a EA no cotidiano escolar., em uma escola estadual do munic√≠pio de Tangar√° da Serra/MT, Brasil. Para tanto, realizou-se entrevistas com os professores que fazem parte de um projeto interdisciplinar de EA na escola pesquisada. Verificou-se que o projeto da escola n√£o vem conseguindo alcan√ßar os objetivos propostos por: desconhecimento do mesmo, pelos professores; forma√ß√£o deficiente dos professores, n√£o entendimento da EA como processo de ensino-aprendizagem, falta de recursos did√°ticos, planejamento inadequado das atividades. A partir dessa constata√ß√£o, procurou-se debater a impossibilidade de tratar do tema fora do trabalho interdisciplinar, bem como, e principalmente, a import√Ęncia de um estudo mais aprofundado de EA, vinculando teoria e pr√°tica, tanto na forma√ß√£o docente, como em projetos escolares, a fim de fugir do tradicional v√≠nculo ‚ÄúEA e ecologia, lixo e horta‚ÄĚ.Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educaci√≥

    A New Concept for Kilotonne Scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

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    We develop a novel Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept suitable for deployment in kilotonne-scale detectors, with a charge-readout system free from reconstruction ambiguities, and a robust TPC design that reduces high-voltage risks while increasing the coverage of the light-collection system and maximizing the active volume. This novel concept could be used as a far detector module in the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). For the charge-readout system, we used the charge-collection pixels and associated application-specific integrated circuits currently being developed for the liquid argon (LAr) component of the DUNE Near Detector design, ArgonCube. In addition, we divided the TPC into a number of shorter drift volumes, reducing the total voltage used to drift the ionization electrons, and minimizing the stored energy per TPC. Segmenting the TPC also contains scintillation light, allowing for precise trigger localization and a more expansive light-readout system. Furthermore, the design opens the possibility of replacing or upgrading components. These augmentations could substantially improve the reliability and the sensitivity, particularly for low-energy signals, in comparison to traditional monolithic LArTPCs with projective-wire charge readouts

    Search for New Physics in the Exclusive ő≥Delayed\gamma_{Delayed} + Missing Transverse Energy Channel in ppňČp\bar{p} collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV

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    This dissertation presents the results of a search in the exclusive photon plus missing transverse energy (gamma + E/_T) final state in proton antiproton collisions at center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the Collider Detector at Fermilab experiment. The strategy used here is to search for delayed photons coming from gauge mediated supersymmetric events with the exclusive production of ~X(0 1) -> gamma~G. In these models the ~X(0 1) is the lightest neutralino and has nanosecond lifetime before decaying to a photon (gamma) and gravitino (~G) which exits the detector unrecorded. In order to search for this process we select collisions that have a single photon plus missing transverse energy and little other activity in the detector and examine the arrival time of the photon. This arrival time is then compared against expectations from a data driven background of the standard model sources. In the data collected from the Fermilab Tevatron collider from December 2004 to June 2010, representing 6.3 fb^-1 of data, we observe 322 events in the photon arrival timing region from 2 nanoseconds to 7 nanoseconds with a data driven background prediction of 257 +/- 35. An excess of 65 events is observed, equivalent to a standard deviation (N_sigma) of 1.65 from the null hypothesis

    First Demonstration of a Pixelated Charge Readout for Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

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    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) have been selected for the future long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). To allow LArTPCs to operate in the high-multiplicity near detector environment of DUNE, a new charge readout technology is required. Traditional charge readout technologies introduce intrinsic ambiguities, combined with a slow detector response, these ambiguities have limited the performance of LArTPCs, until now. Here, we present a novel pixelated charge readout that enables the full 3D tracking capabilities of LArTPCs. We characterise the signal to noise ratio of charge readout chain, to be about 14, and demonstrate track reconstruction on 3D space points produced by the pixel readout. This pixelated charge readout makes LArTPCs a viable option for the DUNE near detector complex.Traditional charge readout technologies of single-phase Liquid Argon Time projection Chambers (LArTPCs) based on projective wire readout introduce intrinsic ambiguities in event reconstruction. Combined with the slow response inherent in LArTPC detectors, reconstruction ambiguities have limited their performance, until now. Here, we present a proof of principle of a pixelated charge readout that enables the full 3D tracking capabilities of LArTPCs. We characterize the signal-to-noise ratio of charge readout chain to be about 14, and demonstrate track reconstruction on 3D space points produced by the pixel readout. This pixelated charge readout makes LArTPCs a viable option for high-multiplicity environments
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