15 research outputs found

    The mortality of patients with Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulation

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    BackgroundDeep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is effective in improving motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate mortality associated with bilateral STN DBS in patients with PD and to assess the factors associated with mortality and causes of death after DBS.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of 257 patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN DBS at the Movement Disorder Center at Seoul National University Hospital between March 2005 and November 2018. Patients were evaluated preoperatively, at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. The cause and date of death were obtained from interviews with caregivers or from medical certificates at the last follow-up.ResultsOf the 257 patients with PD, 48 patients (18.7%) died, with a median time of death of 11.2 years after surgery. Pneumonia was the most common cause of death. Older age of disease onset, preoperative falling score while on medication, and higher preoperative total levodopa equivalent daily dose were associated with a higher risk of mortality in time-dependent Cox regression analysis.ConclusionThese results confirm the mortality outcome of STN DBS in patients with advanced PD

    A case report of thoracolumbar paraspinal myopathy as the cause of camptocormia in a patient with atypical parkinsonism

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    Abstract Background Camptocormia is severe flexion of the thoracolumbar spine, exaggerated during standing and walking but minimized in supine position. Even though camptocormia is a relatively common condition during the course of Parkinson’s disease, there is ongoing controversy concerning its mechanisms. The most widely accepted and yet still disputed one is dystonia. However, based on myopathic changes observed in the paraspinal muscle biopsies of some PD patients with camptocormia, the attempt to attribute camptocormia to myopathy has continued. This case presents evidence for paraspinal myopathy as the cause of camptocormia in a patient with atypical parkinsonism. Case presentation A patient presented with a relatively acute onset of camptocormia and new-onset back pain. Upon examination, she had asymmetric parkinsonism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed alterations in muscle signal intensity in the right paraspinal muscles at the L1–2 level. In the presence of persistent back pain, repeat imaging done two months later showed diffuse enlargement and patchy enhancement of the paraspinal muscles on T1-weighted imaging from T4 through sacrum bilaterally. About fifteen months after the onset of camptocormia, she underwent ultrasound-guided gun biopsy of the paraspinal muscles for evaluation of focal atrophy of the back muscles on the right. The biopsy revealed unmistakable myopathic changes, marked endomysial and perimysial fibrosis of the muscles, and merely mild infiltration of inflammatory cells but no clues regarding the cause of myopathy. On account of persistent back pain and MRI results indicative of ongoing inflammation, she was prescribed glucocorticoid, which she refused to take. Now merely two and a half years after the onset of camptocormia, she is in Hoehn and Yahr stage 4. Conclusions The coincidence of back pain with the appearance of camptocormia and the imaging and pathology findings supportive of myopathy give strong evidence for paraspinal myopathy as the cause of the deformity in this patient. When a patient presents with a relatively acute onset of camptocormia accompanied by back pain, the clinician should not overlook the possibility of myopathy of paraspinal muscles, which may be one of the few treatable causes of camptocormia

    Validation of the Conversion between the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive assessment in Korean Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

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    Objective Two conversion tables between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have recently been established for Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to validate them in Korean patients with PD and to evaluate whether they could be influenced by educational level. Methods A total of 391 patients with PD who undertook both the Korean MMSE and the Korean MoCA during the same session were retrospectively assessed. The mean, median, and root mean squared error (RMSE) of the difference between the true and converted MMSE scores and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated according to educational level (6 or fewer years, 7–12 years, or 13 or more years). Results Both conversions had a median value of 0, with a small mean and RMSE of differences, and a high correlation between the true and converted MMSE scores. In the classification according to educational level, all groups had roughly similar values of the median, mean, RMSE, and ICC both within and between the conversions. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both MMSE-MoCA conversion tables are useful instruments for transforming MoCA scores into converted MMSE scores in Korean patients with PD, regardless of educational level. These will greatly enhance the utility of the existing cognitive data from the Korean PD population in clinical and research settings

    In Vivo Microdialysis Study of the Penetration of Daptomycin into Soft Tissues in Diabetic versus Healthy Volunteers▿

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    Daptomycin is approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections, including diabetic wounds of the lower extremities, at a dose of 4 mg/kg of body weight once daily. For such localized tissue infections, drug concentrations in the interstitial space are an important determinant of successful therapy. In the diabetic population, peripheral arterial disease may limit antibiotic penetration into the target tissue. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of daptomycin in the interstitial fluid of soft tissues in diabetic and healthy volunteers by using in vivo microdialysis. Twelve subjects (six diabetic and six healthy) received a single 4-mg/kg dose of daptomycin intravenously. Samples of plasma and tissue were simultaneously collected over 24 h. Diabetic and healthy groups were matched in mean age (±10 years), gender ratio, mean weight (±10 kg), and creatinine clearance rate (±20 ml/min/1.73 m2). Pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma were similar between groups (P > 0.05). The mean peak drug concentrations ± standard deviations in tissue were 4.3 ± 3.3 μg/ml and 3.8 ± 1.4 μg/ml for diabetic and healthy subjects, respectively. The degree of tissue penetration, defined as the ratio of the area under the free drug concentration-time curve for tissue to that for plasma, was 0.93 ± 0.61 for diabetic subjects and 0.74 ± 0.09 for healthy subjects (P = 0.46). Daptomycin at 4 mg/kg penetrated well into the soft tissue, reaching concentrations approximately 70 to 90% of those of the free drug in plasma. Moreover, these free, bioactive concentrations in tissue exceeded the MICs for staphylococci and streptococci over the 24-h dosing interval

    Ocular Motor Findings Aid in Differentiation of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 17 from Huntington’s Disease

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    © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Differentiation of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) from Huntington’s disease (HD) is often challenging since they share the clinical features of chorea, parkinsonism, and dystonia. The ocular motor findings remain to be elucidated in SCA17, and may help differentiating SCA17 from HD. We retrospectively compared the ocular motor findings of 11 patients with SCA17 with those of 10 patients with HD. In SCA17, abnormal ocular motor findings included impaired smooth pursuit (9/11, 82%), dysmetric saccades (9/11, 82%), central positional nystagmus (CPN, 7/11, 64%), abnormal head-impulse tests (4/11, 36%), and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN, 3/11, 27%). Among these, CPN was more frequently observed in SCA17 than in HD (7/11 (64%) vs. 0/10 (0%), p = 0.004) while saccadic slowing was more frequently observed in HD than in SCA17 (8/10 (80%) vs. 2/11 (18%), p = 0.009). Of six patients with follow-up evaluation, five later developed bilateral saccadic hypermetria (n = 4), GEN (n = 1), CPN (n = 1), bilaterally abnormal smooth pursuit (n = 1), and hyperactive head-impulse responses (n = 1) along with a clinical decline. Ocular motor abnormalities can be utilized as a diagnostic marker for differentiation of SCA17 from HD as well as a surrogate marker for clinical decline in SCA17.N

    Amantadine and the Risk of Dyskinesia in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease: An Open-Label, Pragmatic Trial

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    Objective We examined whether amantadine can prevent the development of dyskinesia. Methods Patients with drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease (PD), younger than 70 years of age and in the early stage of PD (Hoehn and Yahr scale < 3), were recruited from April 2011 to December 2014. The exclusion criteria included the previous use of antiparkinsonian medication, the presence of dyskinesia, significant psychological disorders, and previous history of a hypersensitivity reaction. Patients were consecutively assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in an open label fashion: Group A-1, amantadine first and then levodopa when needed; Group A-2, amantadine first, dopamine agonist when needed, and then levodopa; and Group B, dopamine agonist first and then levodopa when needed. The primary endpoint was the development of dyskinesia, which was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier survival rate. Results A total of 80 patients were enrolled: Group A-1 (n = 27), Group A-2 (n = 27), and Group B (n = 26). Twenty-four patients were excluded from the analysis due to the following: withdrawal of amantadine or dopamine agonist (n = 9), alternative diagnosis (n = 2), withdrawal of consent (n = 1), and breach in the protocol (n = 12). After exclusion, 5 of the 56 (8.93%) patients developed dyskinesia. Patients in Group A-1 and A-2 tended to develop dyskinesia less often than those in Group B (cumulative survival rates of 0.933, 0.929, and 0.700 for A-1, A-2, and B, respectively; p = 0.453). Conclusion Amantadine as an initial treatment may decrease the incidence of dyskinesia in patients with drug-naïve PD