3 research outputs found

    Baseline treatments and metabolic control of 288,913 type 2 diabetes patients in a 10-year retrospective cohort in Malaysia

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    Abstract Diabetes is one of the quickest-growing global health emergencies of the twenty-first century, and data-driven care can improve the quality of diabetes management. We aimed to describe the formation of a 10-year retrospective open cohort of type 2 diabetes patients in Malaysia. We also described the baseline treatment profiles and HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipid control to assess the quality of diabetes care. We used 10 years of cross-sectional audit datasets from the National Diabetes Registry and merged 288,913 patients with the same identifying information into a 10-year open cohort dataset. Treatment targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were based on Malaysian clinical practice guidelines. IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 was used, and frequencies and percentages with 95% confidence intervals were reported. In total, 288,913 patients were included, with 62.3% women and 54.1% younger adults. The commonest diabetes treatment modality was oral hypoglycaemic agents (75.9%). Meanwhile, 19.3% of patients had‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČ3 antihypertensive agents, and 71.2% were on lipid-lowering drugs. Metformin (86.1%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (49.6%), and statins (69.2%) were the most prescribed antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering medications, respectively. The mean HbA1c was 7.96‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ2.11, and 31.2% had HbA1c‚ÄČ>‚ÄČ8.5%. Only 35.8% and 35.2% attained blood pressure‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ140/80¬†mmHg and LDL-cholesterol‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ2.6¬†mmol/L, respectively. About 57.5% and 52.9% achieved their respective triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol goals. In conclusion, data integration is a feasible method in this diabetes registry. HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids are not optimally controlled, and these findings can be capitalized as a guideline by clinicians, programme managers, and health policymakers to improve the quality of diabetes care and prevent long-term complications in Malaysia

    Identifying the necessary capacities for the adaptation of a diabetes phenotyping algorithm in countries of differing economic development status

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    Background In 2019, the World Health Organization recognised diabetes as a clinically and pathophysiologically heterogeneous set of related diseases. Little is currently known about the diabetes phenotypes in the population of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet identifying their different risks and aetiology has great potential to guide the development of more effective, tailored prevention and treatment. Objectives This study reviewed the scope of diabetes datasets, health information ecosystems, and human resource capacity in four countries to assess whether a diabetes phenotyping algorithm (developed under a companion study) could be successfully applied. Methods The capacity assessment was undertaken with four countries: Trinidad, Malaysia, Kenya, and Rwanda. Diabetes programme staff completed a checklist of available diabetes data variables and then participated in semi-structured interviews about Health Information System (HIS) ecosystem conditions, diabetes programme context, and human resource needs. Descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results Only Malaysia collected the full set of the required diabetes data for the diabetes algorithm, although all countries did collect the required diabetes complication data. An HIS ecosystem existed in all settings, with variations in data hosting and sharing. All countries had access to HIS or ICT support, and epidemiologists or biostatisticians to support dataset preparation and algorithm application. Conclusions Malaysia was found to be most ready to apply the phenotyping algorithm. A fundamental impediment in the other settings was the absence of several core diabetes data variables. Additionally, if countries digitise diabetes data collection and centralise diabetes data hosting, this will simplify dataset preparation for algorithm application. These issues reflect common LMIC health systems’ weaknesses in relation to diabetes care, and specifically highlight the importance of investment in improving diabetes data, which can guide population-tailored prevention and management approaches