353 research outputs found

    Effective Use of Surgery in Managing Mixed Incontinence

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    A case of eosinophilic cystitis in patients with abdominal pain, dysuria, genital skin hyperemia and slight toxocariasis

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    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease with controversial aetiology and treatment. We report the case of a 61-year-old man presented with lower quadrant abdominal pain and lower urinary tract symptoms, non responsive to antibiotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Physical examination was substantially negative, such as laboratory parameters, microscopic, bacteriological and serological evaluations. Cystoscopy revealed red areas involving the mucosa of the bladder and transurethral biopsies revealed infiltrating eosinophils. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and montelukast sodium with improving of the symptoms, and at 5 weeks postoperative pain score was reduced. After discontinuing corticosteroids dysuria recurred with the development of hyperemia at the genital skin; the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against several parasites was slightly positive for Toxocara species. Montelukast sodium was discontinued and corticosteroid therapy was started together with albendazole, with improving of patient’s symptoms and pain decreasing after one week

    Transrectal versus transperineal 14-core prostate biopsy in detection of prostate cancer: a comparative evaluation at the same institution.

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    Background: The ideal bioptic strategy for CaP detection is still to be completely defined. The aim of our study is to compare transperineal (TP) and transrectal (TR) approaches, in a 14-core initial prostate biopsy for CaP detection. Material and methods: A prospective controlled study was conducted enrolling 108 consecutive patients with a PSA level greater than 4 ng/mL and/or an abnormal DRE. TR versus TP 14-core initial prostatic biopsies were performed on 54 and 54 patients, respectively, with a randomisation ratio of 1:1. Results: The cancer detection rates were 46.29 (25 out of 54 patients), and 44.44% (24 out of 54 patients), respectively, using the TR or the TP approach (p = 0.846). The overall cancer core rate was significantly higher when the TP approach was used: 21.43% (162 out of 756 cores) and 16.79% (127 out of 756 cores), with the TP and the TR approach, respectively (p = 0.022). The cores were significantly longer performing TP approach: at the site "1" (14.92 versus 12.97 mm, p = 0.02); at "5" (15.53 versus 13.69 mm, p = 0.037); at "7" (15.06 versus 12.86 mm, p = 0.001); at "9" (14.92 versus 13.38 mm, p = 0.038); at "11" (16.32 versus 12.31 mm, p = 0.0001); at "12" (15.14 versus 12.19 mm, p = 0.0001); at "13" (17.49 versus 13.98 mm, p = 0.0001); at "14" (16.77 versus 13.36 mm, p = 0.0001). As to the biopsy related pain, the mean pain level perceived by patients during the TR approach was 1.56 ± 1.73 versus 1.42 ± 1.37 registered during TP approach (p = 0.591). Conclusions: No significant differences were found in cancer detection rate, cancer core rate between TP and TR approaches for prostatic biopsy. Even in terms of complication rate or pain level, it cannot be concluded that one procedure is superior to the other one. Apparently, strictly following our protocol, TP approach seems to offer a better sampling at the level of the apex and the TZ, however without adding any significant advantage in terms of overall cancer detection rate

    Management of Biochemical Recurrence after Primary Curative Treatment for Prostate Cancer: A Review

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    How to manage patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following primary curative treatment is a controversial issue. Importantly, this prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-only recurrence is a surrogate neither of PCa-specific survival nor of overall survival. Physicians are therefore challenged with preventing or delaying the onset of clinical progression in those deemed at risk, while avoiding over-treating patients whose disease may never progress beyond PSA-only recurrence. Adjuvant therapy for radical prostatectomy (RP) or local radiotherapy (RT) has a role in certain at-risk patients, although it is not recommended in low-risk PCa owing to the significant side-effects associated with RT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The recommendations for salvage therapy differ depending on whether BCR occurs after RP or primary RT, and in either case, definitive evidence regarding the best strategy is lacking. Options for treatment of BCR after RP are RT at least to the prostatic bed, complete or intermittent ADT, or observation; for BCR after RT, salvage RP, cryotherapy, complete or intermittent ADT, brachytherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), or observation can be considered. Many patient- and cancer-specific factors need to be taken into account when deciding on the best strategy, and optimal management depends on the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, consultation with the patient themselves, and the adoption of an individualised approach. Improvements in imaging techniques may enable earlier detection of metastases, which will hopefully refine future management decisions

    Cathepsins B and D drive hepatic stellate cell proliferation and promote their fibrogenic potential

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    El pdf del artículo es el manuscrito de autor.-- PubMed: PMCID:PMC2670444Cathepsins have been best characterized in tumorigenesis and cell death and implicated in liver fibrosis; however, whether cathepsins directly regulate hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and proliferation, hence modulating their fibrogenic potential, is largely unknown. Here, we show that expression of cathepsin B (CtsB) and cathepsin D (CtsD) is negligible in quiescent HSCs but parallels the increase of -smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor- during in vitro mouse HSC activation. Both cathepsins are necessary for HSC transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts, because their silencing or inhibition decreasedHSC proliferation and the expression of phenotypicmarkers ofHSC activation, with similar results observed with the human HSC cell line LX2. CtsB inhibition blunted AKT phosphorylation in activated HSCs in response to platelet-derived growth factor.Moreover, during in vivo liver fibrogenesis caused by CCl4 administration, CtsB expression increased in HSCs but not in hepatocytes, and its inactivation mitigated CCl4-induced inflammation, HSC activation, and collagen deposition. Conclusion: These findings support a critical role for cathepsins inHSC activation, suggesting that the antagonismof cathepsins inHSCsmay be of relevance for the treatment of liver fibrosis.Financial support: The work was supported by CIBEREHD and grant PI070193 (Instituto de Salud Carlos III); by grant SAF2006-06780 (Plan Nacional de I+D), Spain; and by grant P50-AA-11999 (Research Center for Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism).Peer reviewe

    Pure stress urinary incontinence: analysis of prevalence, estimation of costs, and financial impact

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    BackgroundThe prevalence of pure stress urinary incontinence (P-SUI) and the role of urodynamic investigation (UDI) prior to surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is debated. Since the exact prevalence of P-SUI is not clear, its clinical and economic impact is not well defined. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of P-SUI in a population of women who underwent UDI for urinary incontinence (UI), also assessing: 1) the correspondence between clinical diagnosis of P-SUI and urodynamic findings; 2) the analysis of costs in terms of UDI and eventually post-UDI avoided surgical procedures.MethodsA single cohort of women who underwent UDI for UI between January 2012 and July 2016 was prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Clinical P-SUI was defined by the strict criteria of the International Continence Society. For each patient, history, physical examination and UDI were collected. The correspondence between clinical and urodynamic findings of P-SUI was analyzed. The rate of clinical P-SUI changed after performing UDI and the number of unnecessary intervention after UDI were reported. A wide cost analysis of UDIs, and the amount of surgical procedures that were believed unnecessary after UDI was reported.ResultsStress urinary incontinence was present in 323/544 (59.4%) patients. The prevalence of clinical P-SUI was 20.7% (67/323), while the prevalence of complicated SUI (C-SUI) was 79.3% (256/323). After UDI, diagnosis of P-SUI decreased to 18.3% (59/232). In 10.2% of cases (6/59) the scheduled middle urethral sling (MUS) was suppressed after the UDI results because 3/6 cases had detrusor overactivity and urge incontinence, in 2/6 cases SUI was treated with a conservative management, in 1/6 case an important voiding dysfunction was detected. Considering the national reimbursement in our country, the cost of each UDI was 296.5 euros and the total amount was 17,493.5 euros. So far the surgery-related savings covered 61.7-105.0% of the costs of total number of UDIs performed in the uncomplicated patients.ConclusionsThe prevalence of clinical P-SUI is relevant, involving about 20% of women with clinical SUI. Although the correspondence between clinical and urodynamic diagnosis was high, we demonstrated that UDI may help in some cases to avoid an inappropriate surgical treatment. Therefore, UDI prior to SUI surgery should be considered to achieve a correct diagnosis and a proper therapeutic strategy

    An unusual pathological finding of chronic lymphocitic leukemia and adenocarcinoma of the prostate after transurethral resection for complete urinary retention: case report

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    BACKGROUND: We describe a patient who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate for urinary obstructive symptoms and had histological findings of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with prostatic localization of chronic lymphocitic leukemia (CLL).The contemporary presence of CLL, adenocarcinoma of the prostate and residual prostatic gland after transurethral resection has never been reported before and the authors illustrate how they managed this unusual patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79-years-old white man, presented with acute urinary retention, had a peripheral blood count with an elevated lymphocytosis (21.250/mL) with a differential of 65.3% lymphocytes and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value was 3.38 ng/mL with a percent free PSA of 8.28%. The transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) indicated an isoechonic and homogenic enlarged prostate of 42 cm(3 )and the abdomen ultrasound found a modest splenomegaly and no peripheral lymphadenophaty. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and had a pathological finding of adenocarcinoma in the prostate with a Gleason Score 4 (2+2) of less than 5% of the material (clinical stage T1a), associated with a diffused infiltration of chronic lymphocitic leukemia elements. CONCLUSIONS: The incidental finding of a prostatic localization of a low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma does not modify eventually further treatments for neither prostate cancer nor lymphoma. The presence of a low-grade and low-stage lymphoma, confirmed by a hematological evaluation, and the simultaneous evidence of an adenocarcinoma after transurethral resection of the prostate for acute urinary retention do not require any immediate treatment due to its long-term survival rate and the follow-up remains based on periodical PSA evaluation and complete blood count

    The clinical efficacy of nitrofurantoin for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults: a systematic review of randomized control trials

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    OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated systematic review of randomized control trials (RCTs) to investigate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of nitrofurantoin compared to other antibiotics or placebo for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTI). A secondary aim is to assess whether nitrofurantoin use is associated with increased side effects compared to other treatment regimens.SUMMARY: The review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. We searched 4 databases for articles published from database inception to May 6, 2020: (1) PubMed electronic database of the National Library of Medicine, (2) Web of Science, (3) Embase, and (4) Cochrane Library. Nine RCTs were selected for the review. RCTs were a mixture of double-blind, single-blind, and open-label trials. The most common comparators were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin tromethamine. Overall study quality was poor with a high risk of bias. The clinical cure rates in nitrofurantoin ranged from 51 to 94% depending on the length of follow-up, and bacteriological cure rates ranged from 61 to 92%. Overall the evidence suggests that nitrofurantoin is at least comparable with other uUTI treatments in terms of efficacy. Patients taking nitrofurantoin reported fewer side effects than other drugs and the most commonly reported were gastrointestinal and central nervous system symptoms. Key Messages: Evidence on the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of nitrofurantoin is sparse, with a lack of new data, and hampered by high risk of bias. Although no firm conclusions can be made on the current base of evidence, the studies generally suggest that nitrofurantoin is at least comparable to other common uUTI treatments in terms of clinical and bacteriological cure. More robust research with well-designed double-blinded RCTs is needed

    ERG alterations and mTOR pathway activation in primary prostate carcinomas developing castration-resistance

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    Abstract Introduction One of the most common sites of distant metastasization of prostate cancer is bone, but to date reliable biomarkers able to predict the risk and timing of bone metastasization are still lacking. Patients and methods Surgically resected paraffin embedded samples from 12 primary prostate cancers that developed metachronous bone metastasis at different time points were studied (six cases within 2 years, six cases after 5 years from surgery). A targeted next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing able to assess simultaneously mutations, copy number alterations and fusion events of multiple genes was used. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess mTOR pathway activation. Results Rearrangements of ETS family genes, molecular alterations in PTEN and TP53 genes were detected in 10, 6 and 5 cancers, respectively. Nine samples showed TMPRSS2-ERG fusions, which were associated with increased ERG expression at immunohistochemistry. mTOR pathway activation was documented in 6 patients, with a clear trend of prevalence in late-metastatic patients (p = 0.08). Conclusions A simultaneous next-generation targeted DNA and RNA sequencing is applicable on routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues to assess the multigene molecular asset of individual prostate cancers. This approach, coupled with immunohistochemistry for ERG and mTOR pathway proteins, may help to better characterize prostate cancer molecular features with a potential impact on clinical decisions
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