27 research outputs found

    The concept of the sound landscape of Murray Schafer applied to the Go√© Payari analysis of Jes√ļs Pinz√≥n Urrea and the first Movement of the Symphony No. 40 of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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    En este texto se explora el potencial del concepto paisaje sonoro desarrollado por Murray Schafer aplicado en el anaŐĀlisis de dos obras con caracteriŐĀsticas musicales y estiliŐĀsticas disiŐĀmiles y compuestas con casi dos siglos de diferencia, la primera de ellas es GoeŐĀ Payari (1982) del compositor colombiano JesuŐĀs PinzoŐĀn, cuyas cualidades sonoras destacan por usar el lenguaje musical del convulsionado siglo XX y, por otra parte, se analiza el primer movimiento de la SinfoniŐĀa No. 40 (1788) de W. A. Mozart, obra fundamental del repertorio universal orquestal. El concepto paisaje sonoro propuesto por Schafer destaca la presencia de varios planos sonoros (sonidos de fondo, senŐÉales sonoras y marcas sonoras), cada plano desempenŐÉa una funcioŐĀn en el entorno sonoro que esteŐĀ bajo anaŐĀlisis. El propoŐĀsito central de este estudio es dar una herramienta que posibilite a directores, compositores o inteŐĀrpretes la ampliacioŐĀn del entendimiento de una obra en particular y que apoye los anaŐĀlisis tradicionales que son comuŐĀnmente aplicados a la partitura, donde se ponen en evidencia los componentes armoŐĀnicos, formales, temaŐĀticos, etc. de la obra. La aplicacioŐĀn del concepto de paisaje sonoro podraŐĀ brindar, desde un punto de vista del aŐĀmbito sonoro, una comprensioŐĀn mucho maŐĀs enriquecedora para el analista.This text explores the potential of the sound landscape concept developed by Murray Schafer applied to the analysis of two works with dissimilar musical and stylistic characteristics and composed almost two centuries apart, the first of which is GoeŐĀ Payari (1982) by the Colombian composer JesuŐĀs PinzoŐĀn, whose sound qualities stand out for using the musical language of the convulsed 20th century and, on the other hand, the first movement of the Symphony No. 40 (1788) by WA Mozart, fundamental work of the universal orchestral repertoire. The landscape sound concept proposed by Schafer highlights the presence of several sound planes (background sounds, sound signals and sound marks), each plane plays a role in the sound environment that is under analysis. The main purpose of this study is to provide a tool that allows directors, composers or interpreters to broaden their understanding of a particular work and support the traditional analyzes that are commonly applied to the score, where the harmonic components are exposed, formal, thematic, etc. of the work. The application of the sound landscape concept can provide, from a sound field point of view, a much more enriching understanding for the analyst.N

    Evenness mediates the global relationship between forest productivity and richness

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    1. Biodiversity is an important component of natural ecosystems, with higher species richness often correlating with an increase in ecosystem productivity. Yet, this relationship varies substantially across environments, typically becoming less pronounced at high levels of species richness. However, species richness alone cannot reflect all important properties of a community, including community evenness, which may mediate the relationship between biodiversity and productivity. If the evenness of a community correlates negatively with richness across forests globally, then a greater number of species may not always increase overall diversity and productivity of the system. Theoretical work and local empirical studies have shown that the effect of evenness on ecosystem functioning may be especially strong at high richness levels, yet the consistency of this remains untested at a global scale. 2. Here, we used a dataset of forests from across the globe, which includes composition, biomass accumulation and net primary productivity, to explore whether productivity correlates with community evenness and richness in a way that evenness appears to buffer the effect of richness. Specifically, we evaluated whether low levels of evenness in speciose communities correlate with the attenuation of the richness‚Äďproductivity relationship. 3. We found that tree species richness and evenness are negatively correlated across forests globally, with highly speciose forests typically comprising a few dominant and many rare species. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between diversity and productivity changes with evenness: at low richness, uneven communities are more productive, while at high richness, even communities are more productive. 4. Synthesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that evenness is an integral component of the relationship between biodiversity and productivity, and that the attenuating effect of richness on forest productivity might be partly explained by low evenness in speciose communities. Productivity generally increases with species richness, until reduced evenness limits the overall increases in community diversity. Our research suggests that evenness is a fundamental component of biodiversity‚Äďecosystem function relationships, and is of critical importance for guiding conservation and sustainable ecosystem management decisions

    Author Correction: Native diversity buffers against severity of non-native tree invasions.

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    Native diversity buffers against severity of non-native tree invasions

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    Determining the drivers of non-native plant invasions is critical for managing native ecosystems and limiting the spread of invasive species1,2^{1,2}. Tree invasions in particular have been relatively overlooked, even though they have the potential to transform ecosystems and economies3,4^{3,4}. Here, leveraging global tree databases5,6,7^{5,6,7}, we explore how the phylogenetic and functional diversity of native tree communities, human pressure and the environment influence the establishment of non-native tree species and the subsequent invasion severity. We find that anthropogenic factors are key to predicting whether a location is invaded, but that invasion severity is underpinned by native diversity, with higher diversity predicting lower invasion severity. Temperature and precipitation emerge as strong predictors of invasion strategy, with non-native species invading successfully when they are similar to the native community in cold or dry extremes. Yet, despite the influence of these ecological forces in determining invasion strategy, we find evidence that these patterns can be obscured by human activity, with lower ecological signal in areas with higher proximity to shipping ports. Our global perspective of non-native tree invasion highlights that human drivers influence non-native tree presence, and that native phylogenetic and functional diversity have a critical role in the establishment and spread of subsequent invasions

    The global biogeography of tree leaf form and habit

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    Understanding what controls global leaf type variation in trees is crucial for comprehending their role in terrestrial ecosystems, including carbon, water and nutrient dynamics. Yet our understanding of the factors influencing forest leaf types remains incomplete, leaving us uncertain about the global proportions of needle-leaved, broadleaved, evergreen and deciduous trees. To address these gaps, we conducted a global, ground-sourced assessment of forest leaf-type variation by integrating forest inventory data with comprehensive leaf form (broadleaf vs needle-leaf) and habit (evergreen vs deciduous) records. We found that global variation in leaf habit is primarily driven by isothermality and soil characteristics, while leaf form is predominantly driven by temperature. Given these relationships, we estimate that 38% of global tree individuals are needle-leaved evergreen, 29% are broadleaved evergreen, 27% are broadleaved deciduous and 5% are needle-leaved deciduous. The aboveground biomass distribution among these tree types is approximately 21% (126.4‚ÄČGt), 54% (335.7‚ÄČGt), 22% (136.2‚ÄČGt) and 3% (18.7‚ÄČGt), respectively. We further project that, depending on future emissions pathways, 17-34% of forested areas will experience climate conditions by the end of the century that currently support a different forest type, highlighting the intensification of climatic stress on existing forests. By quantifying the distribution of tree leaf types and their corresponding biomass, and identifying regions where climate change will exert greatest pressure on current leaf types, our results can help improve predictions of future terrestrial ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling

    The global biogeography of tree leaf form and habit.

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    Understanding what controls global leaf type variation in trees is crucial for comprehending their role in terrestrial ecosystems, including carbon, water and nutrient dynamics. Yet our understanding of the factors influencing forest leaf types remains incomplete, leaving us uncertain about the global proportions of needle-leaved, broadleaved, evergreen and deciduous trees. To address these gaps, we conducted a global, ground-sourced assessment of forest leaf-type variation by integrating forest inventory data with comprehensive leaf form (broadleaf vs needle-leaf) and habit (evergreen vs deciduous) records. We found that global variation in leaf habit is primarily driven by isothermality and soil characteristics, while leaf form is predominantly driven by temperature. Given these relationships, we estimate that 38% of global tree individuals are needle-leaved evergreen, 29% are broadleaved evergreen, 27% are broadleaved deciduous and 5% are needle-leaved deciduous. The aboveground biomass distribution among these tree types is approximately 21% (126.4‚ÄČGt), 54% (335.7‚ÄČGt), 22% (136.2‚ÄČGt) and 3% (18.7‚ÄČGt), respectively. We further project that, depending on future emissions pathways, 17-34% of forested areas will experience climate conditions by the end of the century that currently support a different forest type, highlighting the intensification of climatic stress on existing forests. By quantifying the distribution of tree leaf types and their corresponding biomass, and identifying regions where climate change will exert greatest pressure on current leaf types, our results can help improve predictions of future terrestrial ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling

    Native diversity buffers against severity of non-native tree invasions.

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    Determining the drivers of non-native plant invasions is critical for managing native ecosystems and limiting the spread of invasive species1,2. Tree invasions in particular have been relatively overlooked, even though they have the potential to transform ecosystems and economies3,4. Here, leveraging global tree databases5-7, we explore how the phylogenetic and functional diversity of native tree communities, human pressure and the environment influence the establishment of non-native tree species and the subsequent invasion severity. We find that anthropogenic factors are key to predicting whether a location is invaded, but that invasion severity is underpinned by native diversity, with higher diversity predicting lower invasion severity. Temperature and precipitation emerge as strong predictors of invasion strategy, with non-native species invading successfully when they are similar to the native community in cold or dry extremes. Yet, despite the influence of these ecological forces in determining invasion strategy, we find evidence that these patterns can be obscured by human activity, with lower ecological signal in areas with higher proximity to shipping ports. Our global perspective of non-native tree invasion highlights that human drivers influence non-native tree presence, and that native phylogenetic and functional diversity have a critical role in the establishment and spread of subsequent invasions

    Native diversity buffers against severity of non-native tree invasions

    Get PDF
    Determining the drivers of non-native plant invasions is critical for managing native ecosystems and limiting the spread of invasive species1,2. Tree invasions in particular have been relatively overlooked, even though they have the potential to transform ecosystems and economies3,4. Here, leveraging global tree databases5-7, we explore how the phylogenetic and functional diversity of native tree communities, human pressure and the environment influence the establishment of non-native tree species and the subsequent invasion severity. We find that anthropogenic factors are key to predicting whether a location is invaded, but that invasion severity is underpinned by native diversity, with higher diversity predicting lower invasion severity. Temperature and precipitation emerge as strong predictors of invasion strategy, with non-native species invading successfully when they are similar to the native community in cold or dry extremes. Yet, despite the influence of these ecological forces in determining invasion strategy, we find evidence that these patterns can be obscured by human activity, with lower ecological signal in areas with higher proximity to shipping ports. Our global perspective of non-native tree invasion highlights that human drivers influence non-native tree presence, and that native phylogenetic and functional diversity have a critical role in the establishment and spread of subsequent invasions

    Evenness mediates the global relationship between forest productivity and richness

    Get PDF
    1. Biodiversity is an important component of natural ecosystems, with higher species richness often correlating with an increase in ecosystem productivity. Yet, this relationship varies substantially across environments, typically becoming less pronounced at high levels of species richness. However, species richness alone cannot reflect all important properties of a community, including community evenness, which may mediate the relationship between biodiversity and productivity. If the evenness of a community correlates negatively with richness across forests globally, then a greater number of species may not always increase overall diversity and productivity of the system. Theoretical work and local empirical studies have shown that the effect of evenness on ecosystem functioning may be especially strong at high richness levels, yet the consistency of this remains untested at a global scale. 2. Here, we used a dataset of forests from across the globe, which includes composition, biomass accumulation and net primary productivity, to explore whether productivity correlates with community evenness and richness in a way that evenness appears to buffer the effect of richness. Specifically, we evaluated whether low levels of evenness in speciose communities correlate with the attenuation of the richness‚Äďproductivity relationship. 3. We found that tree species richness and evenness are negatively correlated across forests globally, with highly speciose forests typically comprising a few dominant and many rare species. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between diversity and productivity changes with evenness: at low richness, uneven communities are more productive, while at high richness, even communities are more productive. 4. Synthesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that evenness is an integral component of the relationship between biodiversity and productivity, and that the attenuating effect of richness on forest productivity might be partly explained by low evenness in speciose communities. Productivity generally increases with species richness, until reduced evenness limits the overall increases in community diversity. Our research suggests that evenness is a fundamental component of biodiversity‚Äďecosystem function relationships, and is of critical importance for guiding conservation and sustainable ecosystem management decisions

    The global biogeography of tree leaf form and habit

    Get PDF
    Understanding what controls global leaf type variation in trees is crucial for comprehending their role in terrestrial ecosystems, including carbon, water and nutrient dynamics. Yet our understanding of the factors influencing forest leaf types remains incomplete, leaving us uncertain about the global proportions of needle-leaved, broadleaved, evergreen and deciduous trees. To address these gaps, we conducted a global, ground-sourced assessment of forest leaf-type variation by integrating forest inventory data with comprehensive leaf form (broadleaf vs needle-leaf) and habit (evergreen vs deciduous) records. We found that global variation in leaf habit is primarily driven by isothermality and soil characteristics, while leaf form is predominantly driven by temperature. Given these relationships, we estimate that 38% of global tree individuals are needle-leaved evergreen, 29% are broadleaved evergreen, 27% are broadleaved deciduous and 5% are needle-leaved deciduous. The aboveground biomass distribution among these tree types is approximately 21% (126.4‚ÄČGt), 54% (335.7‚ÄČGt), 22% (136.2‚ÄČGt) and 3% (18.7‚ÄČGt), respectively. We further project that, depending on future emissions pathways, 17‚Äď34% of forested areas will experience climate conditions by the end of the century that currently support a different forest type, highlighting the intensification of climatic stress on existing forests. By quantifying the distribution of tree leaf types and their corresponding biomass, and identifying regions where climate change will exert greatest pressure on current leaf types, our results can help improve predictions of future terrestrial ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling
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