4 research outputs found

    DataSheet_1_Spatial distribution and source identification of metal contaminants in the surface soil of Matehuala, Mexico based on positive matrix factorization model and GIS techniques.docx

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    The rapid growth of urban development, industrialization, mining, farming, and biological activities has resulted in potentially toxic metal pollution of the soil all over the world. This has caused degradation of soil quality, lower crop production, and risk to human health. For this work, two study sites were selected to evaluate metal concentrations in the agricultural as well as the recreational soil around the Cerrito Blanco in Matehuala, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The concentrations of eight metals, namely As, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, Mn, and Fe were analysed in order to determine the level of contamination risk as well as their spatial distributions. However, this study is mainly focused on toxic metals, e.g. As, Sr, Mn, and Fe. The contamination indices techniques were used to evaluate the risk assessment of soil. Additionally, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model as well as the geostatistical analysis was used to identify the contamination sources based on 64 surface soil samples. After implementing PMF to analyze the soils, it was possible to differentiate the variations in factors linked to the contaminants, farming impacts, and the reference soil geochemistry. The soil in the two studied locations included high concentrations of As, Ca, Mg, K, Sr, Mn, and Fe, including variations in their spatial compositions, which were caused by direct mining activities, the movement and deposition of smelting waste, and the extensive use of irrigated contaminated groundwater for irrigation. The four possible factors were identified for soil pollution including industrial, transportation, agricultural, and naturogenic based on the PMF and geostatistical analysis. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations in the soil was also presented using a geographical information system (GIS) interpolation technique. The identification of metal sources and contamination risk mapping presents a significant role in minimizing pollution sources, and it may be performed in regions with high levels of soil contamination risk.</p

    Beyond the “Coffee Ring”: Re-entrant Ordering in an Evaporation-Driven Self-Assembly in a Colloidal Suspension on a Substrate

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    We study the phenomenon of evaporation-driven self-assembly of a colloid suspension of silica microspheres in the interior region and away from the rim of the droplet on a glass plate. In view of the importance of achieving a large-area, monolayer assembly, we first realize a suitable choice of experimental conditions, minimizing the influence of many other competing phenomena that usually complicate the understanding of fundamental concepts of such self-assembly processes in the interior region of a drying droplet. Under these simplifying conditions to bring out essential aspects, our experiments unveil an interesting competition between ordering and compaction in such drying systems in analogy to an impending glass transition. We establish a re-entrant behavior in the order–disorder phase diagram as a function of the particle density, such that there is an optimal range of the particle density to realize the long-range ordering. The results are explained with the help of simulations and phenomenological theory

    BMPER inhibits BMP2-induced signaling in the developing cushions.

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    <p>(A) Recombinant BMPER and BMP2 proteins were combined as indicated and immunoprecipitated using an anti-BMPER antibody, an anti-BMP2 antibody, or the appropriate species-specific IgG antibody controls. As a loading control, all unbound proteins in the supernatant were run in the Input lanes (right lanes). The anti-BMP2 antibody recognized recombinant BMP2 and co-immunoprecipitated BMPER when both proteins were present. Similarly, the anti-BMPER antibody recognized recombinant BMPER and co-immunoprecipitated BMP2 when both proteins were present. (B) BMPER inhibits BMP2-induced Smad1,5,8 phosphorylation (pSmad) in cultured endothelial cells. MECs were treated with BMP2 and increasing doses of BMPER for 45 minutes. As expected, BMP2 treatment induced Smad phosphorylation (second lane). With increasing concentrations of BMPER, the pSmad levels were exponentially reduced (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.98). Data are presented as the fold change compared with BMP2 treatment in the absence of BMPER treatment. Due to reduced signaling intensity when stripping and reprobing blots, β-actin was used as a loading control instead of total Smad. (C) BMP2 increases the Sox9 protein level in cultured endothelial cells. MECs were treated with 0.6 nM BMP2 for the indicated time periods. As expected, BMP2 treatment increased Sox9 protein levels. The arrow indicates the Sox9 protein band. N.S., not significant. *p<0.05, compared with cells without treatment. n = 3. (D) BMPER inhibits BMP2-induced Sox9 protein expression in cultured endothelial cells. MECs were treated with 0.6 nM BMP2 and 5 nM BMPER for 4 hours. BMPER co-treatment blocks BMP2-induced Sox9 protein expression. The arrow indicates the Sox9 protein band. N.S., not significant. *p<0.05, compared with control cells without treatment; #p<0.05, compared with cells with BMP2 treatment only. n = 3. (E) BMPER affects downstream Smad1/5/8 activity in the developing atrioventricular cushions. At E9.5, BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> atrioventricular cushions display reduced pSmad signals compared with their wild-type counterparts. However, by E10.5, the pSmad intensity increases in the BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> atrioventricular cushions compared with the wild-type counterparts. This increase is not maintained, with reduced pSmad intensity in the BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> cushions by E11.5. Fluorescence intensity is quantified on the right. (F) At E9.5, BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> outflow tract cushions display reduced pSmad compared with their wild-type counterparts. However, by E10.5, the pSmad intensity increases in the BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> outflow tract cushions compared with the wild-type counterparts. This increase is not maintained, with reduced pSmad intensity in the BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> cushions by E11.5. *p<0.05. Scale bar = 120 μm.</p

    Proliferation is normal in the BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> cushions.

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    <p>Proliferation was assessed in the atrioventricular cushions (AVCs) and outflow tract (OFT) cushions. Proliferative cells were detected via phosphohistone H3 expression (green), and sagittal sections were colabeled with the myocardial marker MF20 (red) and nuclear marker DAPI (blue). For each sample, all mesenchymal cells in at least 3 sections or a minimum of 100 cells were counted. (A-G) Wild-type (A, C, E) and BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> (B, D, F) AVCs were evaluated at E9.5 (A, B), E10.5 (C, D), and E11.5 (E, F). (A, B) At E9.5, no significant differences were observed between genotypes. (C, D) By E10.5, the proliferation remained similar in both the BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> and wild-type AVCs. (E, F) By E11.5, the proliferation rate increased similarly in both genotypes. (G) The proliferation rates for each group were quantified. n = 2, 4, and 3 for wild-type AVCs and 2, 5, and 3 for BMPER-/- AVCs at E9.5, E10.5, and E11.5, respectively. (H-N) Wild-type and BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> OFT cushions were evaluated in the same manner. (H, I) At E9.5, proliferation was increased, though not significantly, in the OFT cushions of BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> embryos compared with wild-type embryos. (J, K) By E10.5, the proliferation rate decreased in the BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> OFT cushions and was comparable to that in the wild-type OFT cushions. (L, M) As EMT ended and the OFT cushions entered the proliferative phase, the proliferation rate increased similarly in both genotypes. (N) The proliferation rates for each group were quantified. n = 2, 4, and 3 for wild-type OFT cushions and 2, 5, and 3 for BMPER<sup>-/-</sup> OFT cushions at E9.5, E10.5, and E11.5, respectively. Scale bars in A, B, H, and I = 100 μm; scale bars in C, D, J, and K = 110 μm and apply to E, F, L, and M.</p
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