120 research outputs found

    Autoimmunity and otolaryngology diseases

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    Many systemic autoimmune diseases have otolaryngology manifestations that could represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, as they often constitute an early sign of an otherwise asymptomatic autoimmune condition and may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. In other cases, otolaryngology manifestations can be overlooked in patients with previously diagnosed autoimmune diseases. The pres- ence of concomitant conditions, the heterogeneity of studies available in the literature, and the lack of randomized trials are factors that may limit the prompt diagnosis of otolaryn- gology manifestations in systemic autoimmune diseases, with underestimation of the problem and undertreatment of the related condition

    Sialendoscopic management of autoimmune sialadenitis: a review of literature

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    Autoimmune diseases of major salivary glands include Sjögren's syndrome and a complex of disorders classified as immunoglobulin G4-related diseases. These pathologies are characterised by an autoimmune reaction mediated by T-helper lymphocytes that targets the ducts of exocrine glands in Sjögren's syndrome and glandular parenchyma in immunoglobulin G4-related diseases. Immunoglobulin G4-related diseases represent recently introduced multi-organ diseases that also involve the salivary glands. However, the morbid conditions once known as Mikulicz's disease and Kuttner's tumour were recently considered as two variants of immunoglobulin G4-related diseases affecting the major salivary glands ( immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis). This review briefly summarises the pathogenesis and clinical features of autoimmune diseases of the major salivary glands, focusing on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of sialendoscopy

    Subtyping patients with somatic tinnitus: modulation of tinnitus and history for somatic dysfunction help identify tinnitus patients with temporomandibular joint disorders

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    Objective: Determine in a cohort of patients with normal hearing and chronic tinnitus if self-reported history for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction and a positive modulation of tinnitus in the TMJ region could be suggestive of an underlying TMJ disorder. Patients and Methods: The study included 226 patients presenting to the Head and Neck Service of our University Hospital. Following audiological and somatic tinnitus evaluation, patients were divided into two groups. The study group (n= 134) included subjects that met both the following criteria: A) a self-reported history for TMJ dysfunction and B) a positive modulation of tinnitus following somatic maneuvers in the TMJ region. The control group (n=92) included patients with similar demographic and tinnitus characteristics that did not meet the proposed criteria for somatic tinnitus. Afterwards, patients underwent clinical TMJ evaluation in the Service of Clinical Gnathology of our University. Results: One hundred thirty-one patients (57.9%) received a clinical diagnosis of TMJ disorder according to DC/TMD Axis I; 79.1% in the study group and 27.2% in the control group. Ninety-five (42.1%) patients were negative for TMJ disorders; 20.9% in the study group and 72.8% in the control group. A significantly higher number of TMJ disorders was found in patients in the study group compared to the control group (p<0.0001). Most patients had joint disorders (67.2%), followed by other (29.8%) and pain disorders (29%). Logistic regression analysis in the study group showed that female gender was more prevalent in patients with TMJ disorders. Conclusion: Our findings in patients with chronic tinnitus and normal hearing suggest that self-reported history for somatic dysfunction and modulation of tinnitus, when occurring simultaneously in the TMJ region, can be useful to preliminarily identify patients with TMJ disorders

    Clinic manifestations in granulomatosis with polyangiitis

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    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is an uncommon immunologically mediated systemic small-vessel vasculitis that is pathologically characterised by an inflammatory reaction pattern (necrosis, granulomatous inflammation and vasculitis) that occurs in the upper and lower respiratory tracts and kidneys. Although the aetiology of GPA remains largely unknown, it is believed to be autoimmune in origin and triggered by environmental events on a background of genetic susceptibility.In Europe, the prevalence of GPA is five cases per 100,000 population, with greater incidence in Northern Europe. GPA can occur in all racial groups but predominantly affects Caucasians. Both sexes are affected equally. GPA affects a wide age range (age range, 8-99 years).Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is characterised by necrotising granulomatous lesions of the respiratory tract, vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Classically, the acronym ELK is used to describe the clinical involvement of the ear, nose and throat (ENT); lungs; and kidneys. Because the upper respiratory tract is involved in 70-100% of cases of GPA, classic otorhinolaryngologic symptoms may be the first clinical manifestation of disease. The nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses are the most common sites of involvement in the head and neck area (85-100%), whereas otological disease is found in approximately 35% (range, 19-61%) of cases.Diagnosis of GPA is achieved through clinical assessment, serological tests for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and histological analysis. The 10-year survival rate is estimated to be 40% when the kidneys are involved and 60-70% when there is no kidney involvement.The standard therapy for GPA is a combination of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide. In young patients, cyclophosphamide should be switched to azathioprine in the maintenance phase.A multidisciplinary approach, involving otorhinolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, oral physicians, rheumatologists, renal and respiratory physicians, and ophthalmologists, is necessary for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of GPA. ENT physicians have a determining role in recognising the early onset of the disease and starting an appropriate therapy

    Audio-vestibular symptoms in systemic autoimmune diseases

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    Immune-mediated inner ear disease can be primary, when the autoimmune response is against the inner ear, or secondary. The latter is characterized by the involvement of the ear in the presence of systemic autoimmune conditions. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common audiovestibular symptom associated with systemic autoimmune diseases, although conductive hearing impairment may also be present. Hearing loss may present in a sudden, slowly, rapidly progressive or fluctuating form, and is mostly bilateral and asymmetric. Hearing loss shows a good response to corticosteroid therapy that may lead to near-complete hearing restoration. Vestibular symptoms, tinnitus, and aural fullness can be found in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases; they often mimic primary inner ear disorders such as Menière’s disease and mainly affect both ears simultaneously. Awareness of inner ear involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases is essential for the good response shown to appropriate treatment. However, it is often misdiagnosed due to variable clinical presentation, limited knowledge, sparse evidence, and lack of specific diagnostic tests. The aim of this review is to analyse available evidence, often only reported in the form of case reports due to the rarity of some of these conditions, of the different clinical presentations of audiological and vestibular symptoms in systemic autoimmune diseases

    Myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion with endoscopic or microscopic technique in adults: a pilot study

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    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of endoscopic-assisted myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion in adults affected by chronic otitis media with effusion, comparing the outcomes of this approach with those obtained with the traditional microscopic technique. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this trial and alternately assigned to 2 groups of 12 subjects each. In group A, patients underwent myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion under endoscopic view, whereas in group B, the same procedure was performed traditionally using a microscope. All cases were evaluated 1 week after surgery and then monthly until tube extrusion. Type A tympanogram was achieved in 10 of 13 ears in both groups (76.92%). No significant difference in operative times or complication rates was observed (P > .05). Endoscopic technique could be a viable alternative to the microscopic approach for myringotomy and ventilation tube positioning in adults affected by chronic otitis media with effusion

    Tracheocutaneous fistula in patients undergoing supracricoid partial laryngectomy: the role of chronic aspiration

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    The aim of the present retrospective controlled study was to analyse and compare risk factors for tracheocutaneous fistula in patients who received tracheostomy after supracricoid partial laryngectomy with those who received tracheostomy for other causes. We enrolled 39 patients with tracheocutaneous fistulas who were divided into two groups. The first received temporary tracheostomy for supracricoid partial laryngectomies (n = 21), while the control group consisted of patients who received temporary tracheostomy for other causes (n = 18). Risk factors believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of tracheocutaneous fistula were examined including advanced age, cardiopathy, local infections, radiotherapy, elevated body mass index, malnutrition, decannulation time and aspiration grade. The Leipzig and Pearson scale score was significantly higher in the supracricoid partial laryngectomy group (p = 0.006 and 0.031 for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively). The penetration/aspiration scale score was significantly higher in the supracricoid partial laryngectomy group as determined by univariate analysis (p = 0.014). The decannulation time was significantly lower in the supracricoid partial laryngectomy group (p = 0.004 and 0.0004 for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively). The number of surgical closures for tracheocutaneous fistula was significantly higher in the supracricoid partial laryngectomy group by univariate analysis (p = 0.027). These results suggest that chronic aspiration and related cough may be important pathogenic factors for tracheocutaneous fistula and could be responsible for the significantly higher rates of closure failure in patients after supracricoid partial laryngectomy

    Characteristics of somatic tinnitus patients with and without hyperacusis

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    Objective: Determine if somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis have different characteristics from those without hyperacusis. Patients and methods: 172 somatic tinnitus patients with (n = 82) and without (n = 90) hyperacusis referred to the Tinnitus Unit of Sapienza University of Rome between June 2012 and June 2016 were compared for demographic characteristics, tinnitus features, self-administered questionnaire scores, nature of somatic modulation and history. Results: Compared to those without hyperacusis, patients with somatic tinnitus and hyperacusis: (a) were older (43.38 vs 39.12 years, p = 0.05), (b) were more likely to have bilateral tinnitus (67.08% vs 55.56%, p = 0.04), (c) had a higher prevalence of somatic modulation of tinnitus (53.65% vs 36.66%, p = 0.02) and (d) scored significantly worse on tinnitus annoyance (39.34 vs 22.81, p<0.001) and subjective hearing level (8.04 vs 1.83, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows significantly higher tinnitus modulation and worse self-rating of tinnitus and hearing ability in somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis versus somatic tinnitus patients without hyperacusis. These differences could prove useful in developing a better understanding of the pathophysiology and establishing a course of treatment for these two groups of patients

    Somatic tinnitus

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    Modulation of tinnitus characteristics such as pitch and loudness has been extensively described following movements of the head, neck and limbs, vertical or horizontal eye gaze, pressure on myofascial trigger points, cutaneous stimulation of the hands, electrical stimulation of the median nerve, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Modulation of tinnitus follows complex interactions between auditory and somatosensory afferents and can be favored by underlying somatic disorders. When tinnitus appears to be preceded or strictly linked to a somatic disorder, and therefore related to problems of the musculoskeletal system rather than of the ear, it is defined somatic tinnitus. A correct diagnosis and treatment of somatic disorders underlying tinnitus play a central role for a correct management of somatic tinnitus. However, the identification of somatic tinnitus may be complex in some cases. In this paper, after a general review of the current evidences for somatic tinnitus available in the literature, we present and discuss some cases of patients in which somatic modulation of tinnitus played a role - although different from case to case - in their tinnitus, describing the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches followed in each individual case and the results obtained, also highlighting unexpected findings and pitfalls that may be encountered when approaching somatic tinnitus patients
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