64 research outputs found

    Clyde superficial deposits and bedrock models released to the ASK Network 2013 : a guide for users

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    This report draft provides an overview of the Clyde superficial deposits models to be released in 2013 and detail on the Central Glasgow Superficial Deposits Model currently released to the ASK network. The geological models are an interpretation of digital datasets held by the British Geological Survey. A summary of the construction and limitations of the models and a brief description of the modelled units is given. The report will be updated and revised as more models become available for release to the ASK network. More details on the models can be found in the previous reports Merritt et al. (2009), Monaghan (2012a) and Monaghan et al. (2012)

    Model metadata report for the Glasgow Geothermal Energy Research Field Site superficial deposits model

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    This report presents the metadata behind the superficial deposits model, developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS), for the Glasgow Geothermal Energy Research Field Site (GGERFS) of the UK Geoenergy Observatories Programme (UKGEOS). The site is located within the Clyde Gateway regeneration area of eastern Glasgow (Glasgow City Council) and Rutherglen (South Lanarkshire Council), central Scotland, UK. The superficial deposits in the Clyde valley consist of a complex succession of glacial till, marine, lacustrine and fluvio-glacial deposits, overlain by fluvial deposits, recent alluvium and anthropogenic deposits, which locally reach around 50 m in thickness. There is widespread made, filled and landscaped ground mantling the natural superficial deposits. The geological information in this report and accompanying 3D model characterise the various superficial deposits, and give an indication of their thickness and lateral extent. This has created a better understanding of the Quaternary (superficial) geology of the UKGEOS Glasgow area. The model allows users to visualise the likely subsurface sequence to be found beneath the UKGEOS Glasgow area and create synthetic borehole prognoses. The model presented in this report builds on previous superficial deposit models of the Glasgow area, developed in BGS since 2005. A number of reports have been published describing previous models of the area, including Merritt et al. (2009), Monaghan et al. (2012, 2014) and Arkley et al. (2013). The model incorporates additional borehole data to increase the model resolution in the vicinity of the planned new borehole sites and incorporates any post-2005 borehole data more recently received by BGS than previous model versions. This version of the model represents a UKGEOS ‘pre-drill’ understanding of the superficial deposits. The models are an interpretation of digital datasets held by the British Geological Survey. A summary of the construction method, limitations of the models and a brief description of the modelled units are given

    Model metadata report for the post-drill superficial deposits model, UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow

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    This report presents the metadata behind the post-drill superficial deposits 3D geological model data release, developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS), for the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow (UKGEOS). The site is located within the Clyde Gateway regeneration area of eastern Glasgow (Glasgow City Council) and Rutherglen (South Lanarkshire Council), central Scotland, UK. The superficial deposits in the Clyde valley consist of a complex succession of glacial till, marine, lacustrine and fluvio-glacial deposits, overlain by fluvial deposits, recent alluvium and anthropogenic deposits, which locally reach around 50 m in thickness. There is widespread made, filled and landscaped ground mantling the natural superficial deposits. The geological information in this report and accompanying 3D model characterise the various superficial deposits, and give an indication of their thickness and lateral extent. This has created a better understanding of the Quaternary (superficial) geology of the Glasgow Observatory area. The model allows users to visualise the subsurface sequences to be found beneath the Glasgow Observatory site and the surrounding area. The model presented in this report builds on previous superficial deposit models of the Glasgow area, developed by BGS since 2005. A number of reports have been published describing previous models of the area, including Merritt et al. (2009), Monaghan et al. (2012, 2014) and Arkley et al. (2013). The pre-drill Glasgow Observatory model (Arkley, 2019) incorporated additional borehole data to increase the model resolution in the vicinity of the Glasgow Observatory borehole sites and incorporated post-2005 to pre-2018 borehole data received by BGS. This version of the model has been updated in the vicinity of the Glasgow Observatory boreholes and represents a UKGEOS ‘post-drill’ understanding of the superficial deposits in and around the Glasgow Observatory. The models are an interpretation of digital datasets held by the British Geological Survey. A summary of the construction method, limitations of the models and a brief description of the modelled units are given

    UKGEOS: Glasgow Geothermal Energy Research Field Site (GGERFS): initial summary of the geological platform

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    The preferred second UKGEOS site is at Clyde Gateway, in the east end of Glasgow, Scotland. The focus of this, the Glasgow Geothermal Energy Research Field Site (GGERFS), is on characterising and monitoring the subsurface for minewater and hot sedimentary aquifer geothermal energy, and for cooling and heat storage. This report details BGS data and knowledge at late 2016, to define initial characterisation of the ‘geological platform’ relevant for the planning of a geothermal research facility and associated environmental baseline monitoring. The report covers knowledge of the bedrock and superficial deposits geology, abandoned coal mines, hydrogeology, geothermal datasets, geochemistry, remote sensed data, seismicity, stress fields, engineering geology and rock property datasets. BGS holds a great deal of legacy borehole, mining and geochemistry data and has updated existing bedrock and superficial deposits models of the area. However, deep borehole and seismic data are lacking to define the geology and structure of the area below a few hundred metres. Hydrogeological and temperature data are also lacking for the bedrock strata. Regional datasets and knowledge have (and can be further) used to reduce uncertainty and risk in these aspects of the geological characterisation

    Whisker touch guides canopy exploration in a nocturnal, arboreal rodent, the Hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius)

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    Dormouse numbers are declining in the UK due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We know that dormice are nocturnal, arboreal, and avoid crossing open spaces between habitats, yet how they navigate around their canopy is unknown. As other rodents use whisker touch sensing to navigate and explore their environment, this study investigates whether Hazel dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius) employ their whiskers to cross between habitats. We analysed high-speed video footage of dormice exploring freely in flat and climbing arenas in near darkness and using infrared light illumination. We confirm that, like rats and mice, dormice move their whiskers back and forth continuously (~10 Hz) in a motion called whisking and recruit them to explore small gaps (<10 cm) by increasing the amplitude and frequency of whisking and also the asymmetry of movement between the left and right whisker fields. When gaps between platforms are larger than 10-15 cm dormice spend more time travelling on the floor. These findings suggest that dormice can actively and purposively move their whiskers to gather relevant information from their canopy at night. As this species is vulnerable to threats on the ground, we also provide evidence that joining habitat patches between dormouse populations is important for promoting natural behaviours and movement between patches

    Drilling into mines for heat: geological synthesis of the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow and implications for mine water heat resources

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    Thermal energy from groundwater in abandoned, flooded, coal mines has the potential to make a significant contribution to decarbonisation of heat and Net-Zero carbon emissions. In Glasgow, UK, a subsurface observatory has been constructed for mine water heat and heat storage research. We synthesise geological and mine water resource findings from a four-year period of borehole planning, drilling, logging and testing. The heterogenous bedrock is typical of the Scottish Coal Measures Group, whereas superficial deposits are more sand- and gravel-dominated than prognosed. Mine water boreholes encountered workings in the Glasgow Upper, Glasgow Ell and Glasgow Main coal seams, proving water-filled voids, mine waste, fractured rock mass and intact coal pillars with high yields on initial hydrogeological testing. Whilst the depth and extent of mine workings delineated on mine abandonment plans proved accurate, metre-scale variability was expected and proved in the boreholes. A mine water reservoir classification established from the observatory boreholes highlights the resource potential in areas of total extraction, stowage, and stoop and room workings. Since their spatial extent is more extensive across the UK than shafts or roadways, increasing the mine water energy evidence base and reducing exploration risk in these types of legacy workings is important

    The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

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    What can whiskers tell us about mammalian evolution, behaviour, and ecology?

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    Most mammals have whiskers; however, nearly everything we know about whiskers derives from just a handful of species, including laboratory rats Rattus norvegicus and mice Mus musculus, as well as some species of pinniped and marsupial. We explore the extent to which the knowledge of the whisker system from a handful of species applies to mammals generally. This will help us understand whisker evolution and function, in order to gain more insights into mammalian behaviour and ecology. This review is structured around Tinbergen’s four questions, since this method is an established, comprehensive, and logical approach to studying behaviour. We ask: how do whiskers work, develop, and evolve? And what are they for? While whiskers are all slender, curved, tapered, keratinised hairs that transmit vibrotactile information, we show that there are marked differences between species with respect to whisker arrangement, numbers, length, musculature, development, and growth cycles. The conservation of form and a common muscle architecture in mammals suggests that early mammals had whiskers. Whiskers may have been functional even in therapsids. However, certain extant mammalian species are equipped with especially long and sensitive whiskers, in particular nocturnal, arboreal species, and aquatic species, which live in complex environments and hunt moving prey. Knowledge of whiskers and whisker use can guide us in developing conservation protocols and designing enriched enclosures for captive mammals. We suggest that further comparative studies, embracing a wider variety of mammalian species, are required before one can make large-scale predictions relating to evolution and function of whiskers. More research is needed to develop robust techniques to enhance the welfare and conservation of mammals

    The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

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