2,346 research outputs found

    Photoresponsive Cellulose Nanocrystals Regular Paper

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    In this communication a method for the creation of fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles using click chemistry and subsequent photodimerization of the installed side-chains is demonstrated. In the first step, the primary hydroxyl groups on the surface of the CNCs were converted to carboxylic acids by using TEMPO-mediated hypohalite oxidation. The alkyne groups, essential for the click reaction, were introduced into the surface of TEMPO-oxidized CNCs via carbodiimide-mediated formation of an amide linkage between monomers carrying an amine functionality and carboxylic acid groups on the surface of the TEMPO-oxidized CNCs. Finally, the reaction of surface-modified TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanocrystals and azido-bearing coumarin and anthracene monomers were carried out by means of a click chemistry, i.e., Copper(I))-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) to produce highly photo-responsive and fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles. Most significantly, the installed coumarin and/or anthracene side-chains were shown to undergo UV-induced [2+2] and [4+4] cycloaddition reactions, bringing and locking the cellulose nanocrystals together. This effort paves the way towards creating, cellulosic photo responsive nano-arrays with the potential of photo reversibility since these reactions are known to be reversible at varying wavelengths.Peer reviewe

    Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery

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    Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs) as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes