4,462 research outputs found

    Neutron spectrometer for fast nuclear reactors

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    In this paper we describe the development and first tests of a neutron spectrometer designed for high flux environments, such as the ones found in fast nuclear reactors. The spectrometer is based on the conversion of neutrons impinging on 6^6Li into α\alpha and tt whose total energy comprises the initial neutron energy and the reaction QQ-value. The 6^6LiF layer is sandwiched between two CVD diamond detectors, which measure the two reaction products in coincidence. The spectrometer was calibrated at two neutron energies in well known thermal and 3 MeV neutron fluxes. The measured neutron detection efficiency varies from 4.2×10−4\times 10^{-4} to 3.5×10−8\times 10^{-8} for thermal and 3 MeV neutrons, respectively. These values are in agreement with Geant4 simulations and close to simple estimates based on the knowledge of the 6^6Li(n,α\alpha)tt cross section. The energy resolution of the spectrometer was found to be better than 100 keV when using 5 m cables between the detector and the preamplifiers.Comment: submitted to NI

    The Offline Software Framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and the origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. We have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows collaborators to contribute algorithms and sequencing instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information which can reside in various data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package which allows manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++, and takes advantage of object oriented design and common open source tools, while keeping the user side simple enough for C++ novices to learn in a reasonable time. The distribution system incorporates unit and acceptance testing in order to support rapid development of both the core framework and contributed user code.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, presented at IEEE NSS/MIC, 23-29 October 2005, Puerto Ric

    The Offline Software Framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    To be published in the ProceedingsInternational audienceThe Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and the origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. We have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows collaborators to contribute algorithms and sequencing instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information which can reside in various data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package which allows manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++, and takes advantage of object oriented design and common open source tools, while keeping the user side simple enough for C++ novices to learn in a reasonable time. The distribution system incorporates unit and acceptance testing in order to support rapid development of both the core framework and contributed user code

    The Force-Velocity Relation for Growing Biopolymers

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    The process of force generation by the growth of biopolymers is simulated via a Langevin-dynamics approach. The interaction forces are taken to have simple forms that favor the growth of straight fibers from solution. The force-velocity relation is obtained from the simulations for two versions of the monomer-monomer force field. It is found that the growth rate drops off more rapidly with applied force than expected from the simplest theories based on thermal motion of the obstacle. The discrepancies amount to a factor of three or more when the applied force exceeds 2.5kT/a, where a is the step size for the polymer growth. These results are explained on the basis of restricted diffusion of monomers near the fiber tip. It is also found that the mobility of the obstacle has little effect on the growth rate, over a broad range.Comment: Latex source, 9 postscript figures, uses psfig.st

    Elemental, Morphological, and Corrosion Characterization of Different Surface States of Co-Cr Alloy for Prosthodontic Applications

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    In this study, four different groups were prepared in a cast model of an arch that received four implants made with a Co-Cr dental alloy. The surface of each group was prepared by four different surface treatments, including sandblasting with Al2O3 grains (SB), conventional finishing with dental burs (CF), milling with a CAD/CAM device (MIL), and electrodischarge machining (EDM). The characterization of the roughness parameters, morphology, elemental composition, and electrochemical properties of a dental Co-Cr alloy in different surface states exposed to an oral environment were reported. The electrochemical properties were tested with open-circuit potential (OCP) and anodic scan in Ringer’s solutions. The results of roughness parameters, elemental composition, OCP, corrosion potential and pitting potential were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple- comparison test at 95% confidence level. The roughness parameters classified the surfaces from smoothest to roughest according to the following order; CF, MIL, EDM, and SB. The CF group has the best corrosion resistance followed by the EDM, MIL, and SB groups

    Super selective arterial embolization to treat radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis: a case report and review of the literature

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    Radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis (RIHG) is a rare but potentially fatal event following radiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer; the treatment of this condition is not standardized. Only few cases of RIHG have been reported, treated with different therapeutic approaches. Here we report the case of a 79-year-old patient who underwent subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer, followed by adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. Approximately 3 months after the end of the treatment, she developed recurrent diffuse bleeding originating from the entire mucosa of the gastric pouch and from a marginal ulcer. As the bleeding was refractory to several endoscopic treatments and surgery was not indicated, the patient underwent two sessions of transcatheter selective arterial embolization, with resolution of bleeding. Arterial embolization has already been reported for the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis, developing after irradiation of the pelvis for prostate, bladder, rectum, and cervix cancer. However, to our knowledge, it has never been reported as a treatment for hemorrhagic gastritis. Based on this case, we suggest arterial embolization as an option in the management of RIHG, when standard endoscopic treatment fails

    A Development Environment for Visual Physics Analysis

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    The Visual Physics Analysis (VISPA) project integrates different aspects of physics analyses into a graphical development environment. It addresses the typical development cycle of (re-)designing, executing and verifying an analysis. The project provides an extendable plug-in mechanism and includes plug-ins for designing the analysis flow, for running the analysis on batch systems, and for browsing the data content. The corresponding plug-ins are based on an object-oriented toolkit for modular data analysis. We introduce the main concepts of the project, describe the technical realization and demonstrate the functionality in example applications

    The Pierre Auger Observatory offline software

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    The Pierre Auger Observatory aims to discover the nature and origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. The large number of physicists involved in the project and the diversity of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose a challenge for the offline analysis software, not unlike the challenges confronting software for very large high energy physics experiments. Previously we have reported on the design and implementation of a general purpose but relatively lightweight framework which allows collaborators to contribute algorithms and sequencing instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. In this report, we update the status of this work and describe some of the successes and difficulties encountered over the last few years of use. We explain the machinery used to manage user contributions, to organize the abundance of configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information residing in various data sources. We also describe the testing procedures used to help maintain stability of the code in the face of a large number of contributions. Foundation classes will also be discussed, including a novel geometry package which allows manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu decay channel, where l = e or mu, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data were collected at the LHC, with the CMS detector, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 inverse femtobarns. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation, and upper limits are set on the Higgs boson production cross section. The presence of the standard model Higgs boson with a mass in the 270-440 GeV range is excluded at 95% confidence level.Comment: Submitted to JHE
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