5 research outputs found

    Obtención de compuestos biofuncionales a partir del material lignocelulósico de Amaranthus hyponchondriacus L.

    Get PDF
    Amaranth has been cultivated in Mexico since pre-Columbian times, which gives an approximate yield per hectare 1.1 to 6 tons of grain / ha, 3.8 to 4.1 tons of coca leaf / ha, which generates about 271.100 tons of agricultural waste called "stubble Amaranth". The use of amaranth stubble is very limited, used as fertilizer, animal fodder and mostly burned, representing a pollution problem. The stubble Amaranth is a lignocellulosic material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, an important source of dietary fiber. To date there is no integrate studies about it. The main goal of this work was to add value to the amaranth´s lignocellulosic material, obtaining biofunctional compounds, dietary fiber, antioxidants and prebiotics. To achieve this goal using 2 types of stubble RT and RC, stem and leaf. Dietary fiber was obtained by treatment with digestive enzymes, antioxidant compounds were obtained by aqueous extraction following a relationship 1:20 (w / v) and acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid to maintain a temperature of 121 ° C and a 1:16 ratio (w / v), the hydrolysates were taken to pH 7 with a saturated solution of sodium carbonate, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate the ratio was 1:3 (v / v) for separation of polar compounds and nonpolar hydrolysates. In the aqueous extracts and hydrolysates were quantified total phenol content by Folin-Ciucalteau and flavonoids, are likewise evaluated their antioxidant capacity by different systems of oxide reduction (% inhibition of DPPH • radicals, ABTS- persulfate ion chelating effect on Fe2+, reducing power). Prebiotics were obtained by acid hydrolysis and quantified the content of reducing sugars by DNS method. Proximal chemical analysis of residues RT and RC, stem and leaf oil showed that the stem contains the highest content of crude fiber (44.1 ± 1.72), leaves contain the most protein, ether extract and ash amounts (19.6 ± 0.65 , 5.4 ± 0.19, 12.1 ± 0.24 respectively). Chemical analysis of raw materials showed that the stem is the one with the higher cellulose content (46.8 ± 0.1) because stem is the means for plant nourishment, leaf and RC were the ones that presented the highest content of hemicelluloses (23.6 ± 1.3 and 26 ± 0.4 respectively). About lignin, stem and leaves are those that had a higher content (15.4 ± 0.3 and 12.5 ± 0.4). The largest extractable content was present in the RT (38.1 ± 1.1). 60% of RT hemicelluloses correspond to the pentosans (study material for correspond to xylose and arabinose) in the case of RC in most of the hemicellulose is composed of glucose, mannose and galactose, and about 22% belongs to xylose and arabinose, in the stem can ensure that the contained hemicelluloses consist only of arabinose and xylose, while for the sheet about 50% are pentoses and the other half is made up of hexoses. After aqueous extraction, solid residues were obtained and compounds are concentrated in this phase, as in the case of protein in the samples of RC and leaf (15.9 ± 0.63 and 29.9 ± 1.6) and the fiber content ( RT = 27.6 ± 0.22, RC = 10.8 ± 0.52, = 47.2 ± 3.0 stem and leaf = 10.47 ± 0.37) and ether extract in all study samples because these compounds are insoluble in aqueous media, in addition to loss of minerals and ELN. The stem presented the highest content of total dietary fiber (69.77%) compared with RT leaf and stem (54.82%, 42.34% and 30.55% respectively), which indicates that both the stem and the RT is a source for obtaining dietary fiber. The highest polyphenol concentration in the aqueous extract (EA) was obtained when boiling for 5 minutes, the EA leaf was the one with a polyphenol content of 12.55 ± 0.8 mgeq.AG / g, higher than the EA of stubble RT, RC and stem (7.6 ± 0.56, 6.2 ± 0.04 and 1.62 ± 0.01 mgeq.AG / g). In the case of the hydrolysates, the highest polyphenol content is reached at 90 minutes using a sulfuric acid concentration of 5% (v / v) maintaining 121 ° C. The solid residue obtained by aqueous extraction and insoluble dietary fiber from enzyme treatments. Was evaluated in aim to be purified, however, in unpurified solids higher polyphenol content was found. Comparatively the polyphenol content in mg eq. AG / g of stubble RT and RC, stem and leaf resulted in the organic phase: 26.64 ± 0.39, 33.79 ± 0.14, 55.65 ± 0.56, 15.33 ± 0.34, respectively, and turned the water phase: 70.52 ± 1.2 , 83.98 ± 0.15, 57.99 ± 0.93 and 101.53 ± 1.61, being the leaf hydrolyzate in the aqueous phase the one with the highest polyphenol content. Thus, the hydrolysis process releases a significant content of phenolic compounds. It was observed that the amount of flavonoids in both water extracts and in hydrolysates do not represent a significant percentage of total polyphenols, which suggests a characterization of these compounds. The IC50 for reduction of DPPH radical • presented by the aqueous extracts of RT, RC stem and leaf were 0.73, 0.84, 0.45 and 1.45 mg eq. AG / g, while hydrolysates RT, Rc stem and leaf in organic phase were 0.039, 0.35, 0.55 and 0.30 mg eq. AG / g for the aqueous phase 0.97, 2.08, 1.7 and 1.69 mg eq. AG / g, respectively, which indicates that the antioxidant activity is not proportional to the polyphenol content in both water extracts and in the hydrolysates. The leaves´ aqueous extract presented the highest inhibition percentage of ABTS-persulfate radical (57.58 ± 0.68 at a concentration equivalent to 28.13 ± 0.2 mg eq. Trolox / g). About reducing power, it was observed in the aqueous extracts and hydrolysates are not involved predominantly in redox reactions via hydrogen transfer as does the reduced glutathione. Likewise, all the aqueous extracts and hydrolysates showed chelating activity on Fe2+ ion, in the case of the hydrolysates, polyphenol ppm-order concentrations were needed to observe the chelating activity. The release of reducing sugars was time dependent, it is suggested to measure the degree of polymerization to ensure that are considered in the range of oligosaccharides. Amaranth is an agricultural crop that produces waste called amaranth stubble, having limited use prior to this investigation. Tests show that the residues RT and RC, stem and leaf are a source of biofunctional compounds that can be included for the development of functional foods, so the stubble of amaranth stem and leaf are alternative raw materials with potential for being achieved by food industry, focusing towards renewable and sustainable development for using new resources.El amaranto se ha cultivado en México desde la época precolombina, del cual se obtiene un rendimiento aproximado por hectárea de 1.1 a 6 toneladas de grano, 3.8 a 4.1 y toneladas de hoja lo que genera anualmente alrededor de 271,100 toneladas de residuos agrícolas llamados “rastrojo de amaranto”. El uso del rastrojo de amaranto es muy limitado, se abandona en el campo como abono vegetal, se usa como forraje para animales y en la mayoría de las veces es quemado, representando un problema de contaminación. El rastrojo de amaranto es una material lignocelulósico compuesto principalmente de celulosa, hemicelulosas y lignina, representando una importante fuente de fibra dietética. A la fecha no existe un estudio integral del rastrojo de amaranto. Por lo que el objetivo del este trabajo fue darle un valor agregado a este material lignocelulósico de amaranto, obteniendo compuestos biofuncionales: fibra dietética, antioxidantes y prebióticos. Para lograr este objetivo se utilizaron 2 tipos de rastrojo RT y RC, el tallo y la hoja. La fibra dietética se obtuvo mediante un tratamiento con enzimas digestivas, los compuestos antioxidantes se obtuvieron mediante una extracción acuosa siguiendo una relación 1:20 (p/v) y una hidrólisis ácida con ácido sulfúrico manteniendo una temperatura de 121ºC y una relación 1:16 (p/v), los hidrolizados se llevaron a pH 7 con una solución saturada de carbonato de sodio, seguidos de una extracción con acetato de etilo la relación fue de 1:3(v/v), para la separación de compuestos polares y no polares de los hidrolizados. A los extractos acuosos e hidrolizados se les cuantifico el contenido de fenoles totales por el método de Folin-Ciucalteau y flavonoides, así mismo se les evaluó su capacidad antioxidante por diferentes sistemas de oxido reducción (% de inhibición de los radicales DPPH•, ABTS-persulfato, efecto quelante sobre el ión Fe2+, poder reductor). Los prebióticos se obtuvieron mediante la hidrólisis ácida para lo cual se cuantificó el contenido de azúcares reductores por el método de DNS. El análisis químico proximal de los rastrojos RT y RC, tallo y hoja en crudo, mostró que el tallo contiene el mayor contenido de fibra cruda (44.1±1.72), la hoja el mayor contenido de proteína, extracto etéreo y cenizas (19.6±0.65, 5.4±0.19, 12.1±0.24 respectivamente). El análisis químico de los materiales en crudo mostro que el tallo es el que presenta el mayor contenido de celulosa (46.8±0.1) debido a que el tallo es el medio por el cual se nutre la planta, La hoja y el RC fueron los que presentaron el mayor contenido de hemicelulosas (23.6±1.3 y 26±0.4 respectivamente), en cuanto a la lignina el tallo y la hoja son los que presentaron un mayor contenido (15.4±0.3 y 12.5±0.4), el mayor contenido de extraíbles estuvo presente en el RT (38.1±1.1). 60% de las hemicelulosas de RT corresponde a los pentosanos, (para este material de estudio serían Xilosa y arabinosa), en el caso de RC en su mayoría de las hemicelulosas está compuesta de glucosa, manosa y galactosa, y cerca de un 22% pertenece a xilosa y arabinosa, en tallo se puede asegurar que las hemicelulosas que contiene está compuesta únicamente de xilosas y arabinosas, mientras que para la hoja cerca del 50% son pentosas y la otra mitad lo componen las hexosas. Al realizar la extracción acuosa se obtienen residuos sólidos en los que se concentra el contenido de compuestos, como en el caso de la proteína en las muestras de RC y hoja (15.9±0.63 y 29.9±1.6), así como el contenido de fibra (RT=27.6±0.22, RC=10.8±0.52, tallo=47.2±3.0 y hoja=10.47±0.37) y extracto etéreo en todas las muestras de estudio ya que este tipo de compuestos son insolubles en medios acuosos, además de perdidas en minerales y ELN. El tallo presento el mayor contenido de fibra dietética total (69.77%), en comparación con el RT hoja y tallo (54.82%, 42.34% y 30.55% respectivamente), lo cual nos indica que tanto el tallo como el RT son una fuente para la obtención de Fibra dietética. La mayor concentración de polifenoles en los extractos acuosos (EA) se obtuvieron a ebullición durante 5 minutos, el EA de hoja fue la que presentó un contenido de polifenoles (12.55±0.8 mgeq.AG/g) mayor a los EA de los rastrojos RT, RC y tallo (7.6±0.56, 6.2±0.04 y 1.62±0.01 mgeq.AG/g). Para el caso de los hidrolizados el mayor contenido de polifenoles se alcanza a un tiempo de 90 minutos utilizando una concentración de ácido sulfúrico de 5% (v/v) manteniendo la temperatura de 121ºC. Se evaluó en el residuo sólido obtenido de la extracción acuosa y en la fibra dietética insoluble obtenida a partir de tratamientos enzimáticos con el fin de purificarlos, sin embargo se encontró un mayor contenido de polifenoles en los residuos sólidos sin purificar. Comparativamente el contenido de polifenoles expresado en mg eq. AG/g de los rastrojos RT y RC, tallo y hoja en la fase orgánica resulto: 26,64±0.39, 33,79±0.14, 55.65±0.56, 15.33±0.34, respectivamente y para la fase acuosa resulto: 70.52±1.2, 83,98±0.15, 57.99±0.93 y 101.53±1.61, siendo el hidrolizado de la hoja en la fase acuosa la que presenta el mayor contenido de polifenoles. Así pues el proceso de hidrólisis libera un contenido importante de compuestos fenólicos. Se observo que la cantidad de flavonoides tanto en los extractos acuosos como en los hidrolizados no representa un importante porcentaje de los polifenoles totales, por lo que sugiere una caracterización de estos compuestos. El IC50 de reducción del radical DPPH• que presentaron los extractos acuosos de para RT, RC tallo y hoja fueron de 0.73, 0.84, 0.45 y 1.45 mg eq. AG/g, mientras que los hidrolizados de RT, Rc tallo y hoja para la fase orgánica fue de 0.039, 0.35, 0.55 y 0.30 mg eq. AG/g y para la fase acuosa 0.97, 2.08, 1.7 y 1.69 mg eq. AG/g, respectivamente, lo cual nos indica que la actividad antioxidante no es proporcional al contenido de polifenoles, tanto en los extractos acuosos como en los hidrolizados. El extracto acuoso de hoja fue la que presento un mayor porcentaje de inhibición del radical ABTS-persulfato (57.58±0.68, a una concentración equivalente a 28.13±0.2 mg eq. Trolox/g). En cuanto al poder reductor se pudo observar que en los extractos acuosos y los hidrolizados no intervienen de forma predominante las reacciones de oxido reducción por medio de la transferencia de hidrógenos como lo hace el glutatión reducido. Así mismo todos los extractos acuosos y los hidrolizados presentaron actividad quelante sobre el ión Fe2+, en el caso de los hidrolizados se necesitaron concentraciones de ppm de polifenoles para poder observar el la actividad quelante. La liberación de azúcares reductores fue dependiente del tiempo, se sugiere medir su grado de polimerización para asegurar que caen dentro del rango de oligosacáridos. El amaranto es un cultivo que genera residuos agrícolas llamados Rastrojo de amaranto, teniendo un uso limitado hasta antes de esta investigación. Las pruebas realizadas muestran que los rastrojos RT y RC, el tallo y la hoja son fuente de compuestos funcionales que pueden ser incluidos para la elaboración de alimentos funcionales, por lo que el rastrojo de amaranto el tallo y la hoja representan una alternativa como materias primas potenciales para la industria alimentaria, al enfocarse hacia un desarrollo sostenible y renovable por la utilización de nuevas fuentes de recursos

    Methodology for the Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller on Arduino, MATLAB™ and Nexys 4™ Platforms

    Get PDF
    This chapter presents a methodology to implement a fuzzy controller in different hardware platforms, which can be used to control a system or process. The methodology proposes a programming algorithm to implement a fuzzy controller on the Arduino UNO, Arduino DUE, Nexys 4™, and MATLAB™ platforms. The programming algorithm uses two control statements (IF-THEN and FOR) and the basic mathematical operations. The fuzzy controller was designed for two input variables, one output variable, five fuzzy sets for each variable, and a Mamdani type structure. An analysis of convergence time, amount of memory, and control surface is performed to ensure that the fuzzy controller on all platforms is satisfactory. MATLAB™ is used to compare these platforms through numerical simulations, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The experimental results of the fuzzy controller are a processing time of 117 milliseconds and 40% of the memory of the Arduino UNO, a processing time of 21.275 milliseconds and 5% of the memory of the Arduino DUE, and a processing time of 17.871 milliseconds and 40% of the memory on the Nexys 4™. Finally, a Mean Square Error of 0.0326, 0.0643, and 0.1125 was obtained for MATLAB™, Arduino, and Nexys 4™, respectively

    Biochemical and functional characterization of milk from alpina and tog-genburg goat breeds

    Get PDF
    Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the biochemical and functional properties of milk from two goat breeds (Alpina and Toggenburg) which could give goat's milk a higher added value and market, making it an attractive option for milk producers. Design/methodology/approach: Several biochemical analyses were performed to both breed milks: Total Fat (Gerber); Total Protein (Lowry); Lactose (reducing sugars); Fatty acid composition (Mass-mass coupled gas chromatography) and antihypertensive activity (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition). To determine possible applications, functional characteristics of yogurt and cheese were also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed using NCSS software. Results: Fat content of Alpina breed was higher than Toggenburg’s (4.76% vs. 2.96%, α=0.00013), as was lactose (8.26% vs. 5.37%, α=0.003), while Toggenburg presented higher protein content (5.53% vs. 4.77%, α=0.00016). Potential biologically active fatty acids were found in both milks in similar concentrations. Toggenburg milk sowed higher antihypertensive activity than Alpina (100% vs 77.27%), which was maintained and in some cases increased, when fermented to obtain different derivatives such as cheese and yogurt. Limitations on study/implications: Further study is still needed to determine the entire biofunctionality of goat’s milk and provide milk producers with options to increase market and added value of their products. Findings/conclusions: Both, Alpina and Toggenburg goat’s milk showed a high Biofunctional potential due to their fat and protein fractions; The fact that biofunctionality can be transferred to derivatives such as yogurt or cheese may increase producers' interest in producing and commercializing it, since the products can be marketed as “functional foods”.Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the biochemical and functional properties of milk from two goat breeds (Alpina and Toggenburg) which could give goat's milk a higher added value and market, making it an attractive option for milk producers. Design/methodology/approach: Several biochemical analyses were performed to both breed milks: Total Fat (Gerber); Total Protein (Lowry); Lactose (reducing sugars); Fatty acid composition (Mass-mass coupled gas chromatography) and antihypertensive activity (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition). To determine possible applications, functional characteristics of yogurt and cheese were also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed using NCSS software. Results: Fat content of Alpina breed was higher than Toggenburg’s (4.76% vs. 2.96%, α=0.00013), as was lactose (8.26% vs. 5.37%, α=0.003), while Toggenburg presented higher protein content (5.53% vs. 4.77%, α=0.00016). Potential biologically active fatty acids were found in both milks in similar concentrations. Toggenburg milk sowed higher antihypertensive activity than Alpina (100% vs 77.27%), which was maintained and, in some cases, increased, when fermented to obtain different derivatives such as cheese and yogurt. Limitations on study/implications: Further study is still needed to determine the entire biofunctionality of goat’s milk and provide milk producers with options to increase market and added value of their products. Findings/conclusions: Both, Alpina and Toggenburg goat’s milk showed a high Biofunctional potential due to their fat and protein fractions; The fact that biofunctionality can be transferred to derivatives such as yogurt or cheese may increase producers' interest in producing and commercializing it, since the products can be marketed as “functional foods”

    Evaluation of protein sources in snail (Helix aspersa Müller) diets on the antioxidant bioactivity of peptides in meat and slime

    Get PDF
    Objective: This work evaluates the effect of a dietary supply of amaranth, oats and lentils as a protein source on anthropometric measurements, the chemical composition in meat, as well as antioxidant activity in meat peptides and secretion of the snail (Helix aspersa Múller). Design/methodology/approach: We worked with three groups of snails of 36 individuals and a control group fed with the same diet varying the protein source: amaranth, oats and lentils. A sample was taken every seven days and the shell's weight, width and length were measured. Five individuals from each group were sacrificed and the meat from which they were sacrificed was extracted: weight, moisture and protein. The hydrolysis soluble proteins in meat and slime were obtained and the antioxidant activity was measured using the reducing radicals DPPH• and ABTS•. Results: Snail meat was obtained with an increase of more than double in weight when 10% of Am was supplied as a protein source. Likewise, the dimensions of the shell will increase by 5%-11%. In FSM, it was obtained up to 79.8% moisture, 11.2% protein, 1.2% fat and 2.5% collagen. When obtaining snail meat flour, it was reduced to 12±1.9% humidity with up to 24.53 g/g of soluble protein. When hydrolyzing the proteins, it was observed that the peptides obtained presented the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity of 21.58±2.7, 5.45± 1.8, 12.69±1.7 and IC50 of ABTS removal activity 8.86±0.9, 1.62±0.04, 10.84±1.0, for HFSM, HSMF and SS samples, respectively. Limitations on study/implications: It is necessary to carry out other studies on the functionality of snail meat proteins and thus propose their implementation in food formulations to maximize their commercialization. Findings/conclusions: Feeding snails with amaranth helps to increase the quality of protein in fresh meat and flour. Likewise, requests for soluble proteins from beef, flour and secretion are alternatives for preparing functional foods.Objective: This work evaluates the effect of a dietary supply of amaranth, oats and lentils as a protein source on anthropometric measurements, the chemical composition in meat, as well as antioxidant activity in meat peptides and secretion of the snail (Helix aspersa Múller). Design/methodology/approach: We worked with three groups of snails of 36 individuals and a control group fed with the same diet varying the protein source: amaranth, oats and lentils. A sample was taken every seven days and the shell's weight, width and length were measured. Five individuals from each group were sacrificed and the meat from which they were sacrificed was extracted: weight, moisture and protein. The hydrolysis soluble proteins in meat and slime were obtained and the antioxidant activity was measured using the reducing radicals DPPH• and ABTS•. Results: Snail meat was obtained with an increase of more than double in weight when 10% of Am was supplied as a protein source. Likewise, the dimensions of the shell will increase by 5%-11%. In FSM, it was obtained up to 79.8% moisture, 11.2% protein, 1.2% fat and 2.5% collagen. When obtaining snail meat flour, it was reduced to 12±1.9% humidity with up to 24.53 g/g of soluble protein. When hydrolyzing the proteins, it was observed that the peptides obtained presented the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity of 21.58±2.7, 5.45± 1.8, 12.69±1.7 and IC50 of ABTS removal activity 8.86±0.9, 1.62±0.04, 10.84±1.0, for HFSM, HSMF and SS samples, respectively. Limitations on study/implications: It is necessary to carry out other studies on the functionality of snail meat proteins and thus propose their implementation in food formulations to maximize their commercialization. Findings/conclusions: Feeding snails with amaranth helps to increase the quality of protein in fresh meat and flour. Likewise, requests for soluble proteins from beef, flour and secretion are alternatives for preparing functional foods
    corecore