1,377 research outputs found

    Measurement of the total and differential cross section of Z boson production in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV

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    Z boson production in association with jets at the LHC is a major source of background to standard model searches and it provides a sensitive evaluation of the accuracy of perturbative QCD predictions. The production of a Z boson, decaying to two charged muons ^+^-), in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The cross sections and their ratios are measured with data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb^-1. The cross sections are measured as a function of observables including the transverse momentum and rapidity of the Z boson, the jet transverse momentum and rapidity for the five highest momentum jets, and jet multiplicity. The measurements are compared with predictions from a multileg next-to-leading-order Monte Carlo generator and a next-to-next-to-leading order calculation with next-to-next-to-leading logarithm resummation and parton showering

    Topographical expression of class IA and class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzymes in normal human tissues is consistent with a role in differentiation

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    BACKGROUND: Growth factor, cytokine and chemokine-induced activation of PI3K enzymes constitutes the start of a complex signalling cascade, which ultimately mediates cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, survival, trafficking, and glucose homeostasis. The PI3K enzyme family is divided into 3 classes; class I (subdivided into IA and IB), class II (PI3K-C2α, PI3K-C2ÎČ and PI3K-C2Îł) and class III PI3K. Expression of these enzymes in human tissue has not been clearly defined. METHODS: In this study, we analysed the immunohistochemical topographical expression profile of class IA (anti-p85 adaptor) and class II PI3K (PI3K-C2α and PI3K-C2ÎČ) enzymes in 104 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded normal adult human (age 33–71 years, median 44 years) tissue specimens including those from the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hepatobiliary, endocrine, integument and lymphoid systems. Antibody specificity was verified by Western blotting of cell lysates and peptide blocking studies. Immunohistochemistry intensity was scored from undetectable to strong. RESULTS: PI3K enzymes were expressed in selected cell populations of epithelial or mesenchymal origin. Columnar epithelium and transitional epithelia were reactive but mucous secreting and stratified squamous epithelia were not. Mesenchymal elements (smooth muscle and endothelial cells) and glomerular epithelium were only expressed PI3K-C2α while ganglion cells expressed p85 and PI3K-C2ÎČ. All three enzymes were detected in macrophages, which served as an internal positive control. None of the three PI3K isozymes was detected in the stem cell/progenitor compartments or in B lymphocyte aggregates. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data suggest that PI3K enzyme distribution is not ubiquitous but expressed selectively in fully differentiated, non-proliferating cells. Identification of the normal in vivo expression pattern of class IA and class II PI3K paves the way for further analyses which will clarify the role played by these enzymes in inflammatory, neoplastic and other human disease conditions

    Force Measurements of TCR/pMHC Recognition at T Cell Surface

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    The rupture forces and adhesion frequencies of single recognition complexes between an affinity selected peptide/MHC complex and a TCR at a murine hybridoma surface were measured using Atomic Force Microscopy. When the CD8 coreceptor is absent, the adhesion frequency depends on the nature of the peptide but the rupture force does not. When CD8 is present, no effect of the nature of the peptide is observed. CD8 is proposed to act as a time and distance lock, enabling the shorter TCR molecule to bridge the pMHC and have time to finely read the peptide. Ultimately, such experiments could help the dissection of the sequential steps by which the TCR reads the peptide/MHC complex in order to control T cell activation

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð„with constraintsð ð ð„ „ ðandðŽð„ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Common variants in Alzheimer’s disease and risk stratification by polygenic risk scores

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    Funder: Funder: Fundación bancaria ‘La Caixa’ Number: LCF/PR/PR16/51110003 Funder: Grifols SA Number: LCF/PR/PR16/51110003 Funder: European Union/EFPIA Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Number: 115975 Funder: JPco-fuND FP-829-029 Number: 733051061Genetic discoveries of Alzheimer's disease are the drivers of our understanding, and together with polygenetic risk stratification can contribute towards planning of feasible and efficient preventive and curative clinical trials. We first perform a large genetic association study by merging all available case-control datasets and by-proxy study results (discovery n = 409,435 and validation size n = 58,190). Here, we add six variants associated with Alzheimer's disease risk (near APP, CHRNE, PRKD3/NDUFAF7, PLCG2 and two exonic variants in the SHARPIN gene). Assessment of the polygenic risk score and stratifying by APOE reveal a 4 to 5.5 years difference in median age at onset of Alzheimer's disease patients in APOE ɛ4 carriers. Because of this study, the underlying mechanisms of APP can be studied to refine the amyloid cascade and the polygenic risk score provides a tool to select individuals at high risk of Alzheimer's disease

    The extreme HBL behaviour of Markarian 501 during 2012

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    A multiwavelength campaign was organized to take place between March and July of 2012. Excellent temporal coverage was obtained with more than 25 instruments, including the MAGIC, FACT and VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes, the instruments on board the Swift and Fermi spacecraft, and the telescopes operated by the GASP-WEBT collaboration. Mrk 501 showed a very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray flux above 0.2 TeV of ∌\sim0.5 times the Crab Nebula flux (CU) for most of the campaign. The highest activity occurred on 2012 June 9, when the VHE flux was ∌\sim3 CU, and the peak of the high-energy spectral component was found to be at ∌\sim2 TeV. This study reports very hard X-ray spectra, and the hardest VHE spectra measured to date for Mrk 501. The fractional variability was found to increase with energy, with the highest variability occurring at VHE, and a significant correlation between the X-ray and VHE bands. The unprecedentedly hard X-ray and VHE spectra measured imply that their low- and high-energy components peaked above 5 keV and 0.5 TeV, respectively, during a large fraction of the observing campaign, and hence that Mrk 501 behaved like an extreme high-frequency- peaked blazar (EHBL) throughout the 2012 observing season. This suggests that being an EHBL may not be a permanent characteristic of a blazar, but rather a state which may change over time. The one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario can successfully describe the segments of the SED where most energy is emitted, with a significant correlation between the electron energy density and the VHE gamma-ray activity, suggesting that most of the variability may be explained by the injection of high-energy electrons. The one-zone SSC scenario used reproduces the behaviour seen between the measured X-ray and VHE gamma-ray fluxes, and predicts that the correlation becomes stronger with increasing energy of the X-rays

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to two Higgs bosons in final states containing four b quarks