1,703 research outputs found

    Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with Scintillation Light in Liquid Xenon

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    Scintillation light from gamma ray irradiation in liquid xenon is detected by two Hamamatsu R9288 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) immersed in the liquid. UV light reflector material, PTFE, is used to optimize the light collection efficiency. The detector gives a high light yield of 6 photoelectron per keV (pe/keV), which allows efficient detection of the 122 keV gamma-ray line from Co-57, with a measured energy resolution of (8.8+/-0.6)% (sigma). The best achievable energy resolution, by removing the instrumental fluctuations, from liquid xenon scintillation light is estimated to be around 6-8% (sigma) for gamma-ray with energy between 662 keV and 122 keV

    A Study of the LXeGRIT Detection Efficiency for MeV Gamma-Rays during the 2000 Balloon Flight Campaign

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    LXeGRIT - Liquid Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope - is the first prototype of a Compton telescope for \MeV \g-ray astrophysics based on a LXe time projection chamber. One of the most relevant figures of merit for a Compton telescope is the detection efficiency for \g-rays, which depends on diverse contributions such as detector geometry and passive materials, trigger efficiency, dead time, etc. A detailed study of the efficiency of the LXeGRIT instrument, based both on laboratory measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, is presented in this paper.Comment: 20 pages, 15 figures; submitted to NIM

    XMASS

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    The XMASS detector is a large single phase liquid Xenon scintillator.After its feasibility had been studied using a 100 kg size prototype detector, an 800 kg size detector is being built for dark matter search with the sensitivity of 10‚ąí45cm210^{-45} {\rm cm}^2 region in spin-independent cross section. The results of R\&D study for 800 kg detector, especially ultra low background technologies, and the prospects of the experiment are described.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figures, for the proceedings of the 1st International Workshop towards the Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiment (GLA2010, will be published in Journal of Physics, Conference Series (Editors: T. Hasegawa and A. Rubbia)

    Detection of liquid xenon scintillation light with a Silicon Photomultiplier

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    We have studied the feasibility of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) to detect liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation light. The SiPM was operated inside a small volume of pure LXe, at -95 degree Celsius, irradiated with an internal Am-241 alpha source. The gain of the SiPM at this temperature was estimated to be 1.8 x 10^6 with bias voltage at 52 V. Based on the geometry of the setup, the quantum efficiency of the SiPM was estimated to be 22% at the Xe wavelength of 178 nm. The low excess noise factor, high single photoelectron detection efficiency, and low bias voltage of SiPMs make them attractive alternative UV photon detection devices to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for liquid xenon detectors, especially for experiments requiring a very low energy detection threshold, such as neutralino dark matter searches

    Performance of a Large Area Avalanche Photodiode in a Liquid Xenon Ionization and Scintillation Chamber

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    Scintillation light produced in liquid xenon (LXe) by alpha particles, electrons and gamma-rays was detected with a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) immersed in the liquid. The alpha scintillation yield was measured as a function of applied electric field. We estimate the quantum efficiency of the LAAPD to be 45%. The best energy resolution from the light measurement at zero electric field is 7.5%(sigma) for 976 keV internal conversion electrons from Bi-207 and 2.6%(sigma) for 5.5 MeV alpha particles from Am-241. The detector used for these measurements was also operated as a gridded ionization chamber to measure the charge yield. We confirm that using a LAAPD in LXe does not introduce impurities which inhibit the drifting of free electrons.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure

    Naturality, unification and dark matter

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    We consider a model where electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by Technicolor dynamics with minimal particle content required for walking coupling and saturation of global anomalies. Furthermore, the model features three additional Weyl fermions singlet under Technicolor interactions, which provide for a one-loop unification of the Standard Model gauge couplings. Among these extra matter fields exists a possible candidate for weakly interacting dark matter. We evaluate the relic densities and find that they are sufficient to explain the cosmological observations and avoid the experimental limits from earth-based searches. Hence, we establish a non-supersymmetric framework where hierarchy and naturality problems are solved, coupling constant unification is achieved and a plausible dark matter candidate exists

    Compton Imaging of MeV Gamma-Rays with the Liquid Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope (LXeGRIT)

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    The Liquid Xenon Gamma-Ray Imaging Telescope (LXeGRIT) is the first realization of a liquid xenon time projection chamber for Compton imaging of MeV gamma-ray sources in astrophysics. By measuring the energy deposit and the three spatial coordinates of individual gamma-ray scattering points, the location of the source in the sky is inferred with Compton kinematics reconstruction. The angular resolution is determined by the detector's energy and spatial resolutions, as well as by the separation in space between the first and second scattering. The imaging response of LXeGRIT was established with gamma-rays from radioactive sources, during calibration and integration at the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, prior to the 2000 balloon flight mission. In this paper we describe in detail the various steps involved in imaging sources with LXeGRIT and present experimental results on angular resolution and other parameters which characterize its performance as a Compton telescope.Comment: 22 pages, 20 figures, submitted to NIM

    A Monte Carlo analysis of the liquid xenon TPC as gamma ray telescope

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    Extensive Monte Carlo modeling of a coded aperture x ray telescope based on a high resolution liquid xenon TPC has been performed. Results on efficiency, background reduction capability and source flux sensitivity are presented. We discuss in particular the development of a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points. From the energy and spatial information, the kinematics of Compton scattering is used to identify and reduce background events, as well as to improve the detector response in the few MeV region. Assuming a spatial resolution of 1 mm RMS and an energy resolution of 4.5 percent FWHM at 1 MeV, the algorithm is capable of reducing by an order of magnitude the background rate expected at balloon altitude, thus significantly improving the telescope sensitivity

    Liquid xenon time projection chamber for gamma rays in the MeV region: Development status

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    The feasibility of a large volume Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXe-TPC) for three dimensional imaging and spectroscopy of cosmic gamma ray sources, was tested with a 3.5 liter prototype. The observation of induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays in liquid xenon is reported, with a good signal-to-noise ratio. The results represent the first experimental demonstration with a liquid xenon ionization chamber of a nondestructive readout of the electron image produced by point-like charges, using a sense wire configuration of the type originally proposed in 1970 by Gatti et al. An energy resolution as good as that previously measured by the millimeter size chambers, was achieved with the large prototype of 4.4 cm drift gap
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