4,239 research outputs found

    Scaling behavior of the momentum distribution of a quantum Coulomb system in a confining potential

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    We calculate the single-particle momentum distribution of a quantum many-particle system in the presence of the Coulomb interaction and a confining potential. The region of intermediate momenta, where the confining potential dominates, marks a crossover from a Gaussian distribution valid at low momenta to a power-law behavior valid at high momenta. We show that for all momenta the momentum distribution can be parametrized by a qq-Gaussian distribution whose parameters are specified by the confining potential. Furthermore, we find that the functional form of the probability of transitions between the confined ground state and the nthn^{th} excited state is invariant under scaling of the ratio Q2/νnQ^2/\nu_n, where QQ is the transferred momentum and νn\nu_n is the corresponding excitation energy. Using the scaling variable Q2/νnQ^2/\nu_n the maxima of the transition probabilities can also be expressed in terms of a qq-Gaussian.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Thermo-mechanic-electrical coupling in phospholipid monolayers near the critical point

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    Lipid monolayers have been shown to represent a powerful tool in studying mechanical and thermodynamic properties of lipid membranes as well as their interaction with proteins. Using Einstein's theory of fluctuations we here demonstrate, that an experimentally derived linear relationship both between transition entropy S and area A as well as between transition entropy and charge q implies a linear relationships between compressibility \kappa_T, heat capacity c_\pi, thermal expansion coefficient \alpha_T and electric capacity CT. We demonstrate that these couplings have strong predictive power as they allow calculating electrical and thermal properties from mechanical measurements. The precision of the prediction increases as the critical point TC is approached

    Two Gastropods from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) of Coahuila, Mexico

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    Non-Abelian Geometric Phases and Conductance of Spin-3/2 Holes

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    Angular momentum J=3/2J=3/2 holes in semiconductor heterostructures are showed to accumulate nonabelian geometric phases as a consequence of their motion. We provide a general framework for analyzing such a system and compute conductance oscillations for a simple ring geometry. We also analyze a figure-8 geometry which captures intrinsically nonabelian interference effects.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures (encapsulated PostScript) Replaced fig. 1 and fig.

    The predictive and prognostic potential of plasma telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) RNA in rectal cancer patients

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    Background: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard care for locally advanced rectal cancer, but tumour response to CRT and disease outcome are variable. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of plasma telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) levels in predicting tumour response and clinical outcome. Methods: 176 rectal cancer patients were included. Plasma samples were collected at baseline (before CRT\ubcT0), 2 weeks after CRT was initiated (T1), post-CRT and before surgery (T2), and 4\u20138 months after surgery (T3) time points. Plasma TERT mRNA levels and total cell-free RNA were determined using real-time PCR. Results: Plasma levels of TERT were significantly lower at T2 (Po0.0001) in responders than in non-responders. Post-CRT TERT levels and the differences between pre- and post-CRT TERT levels independently predicted tumour response, and the prediction model had an area under curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73\u20130.87). Multiple analysis demonstrated that patients with detectable TERT levels at T2 and T3 time points had a risk of disease progression 2.13 (95% CI 1.10\u20134.11)-fold and 4.55 (95% CI 1.48\u201313.95)-fold higher, respectively, than those with undetectable plasma TERT levels. Conclusions: Plasma TERT levels are independent markers of tumour response and are prognostic of disease progression in rectal cancer patients who undergo neoadjuvant therapy

    Critical Exponents, Hyperscaling and Universal Amplitude Ratios for Two- and Three-Dimensional Self-Avoiding Walks

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    We make a high-precision Monte Carlo study of two- and three-dimensional self-avoiding walks (SAWs) of length up to 80000 steps, using the pivot algorithm and the Karp-Luby algorithm. We study the critical exponents ν\nu and 2Δ4γ2\Delta_4 -\gamma as well as several universal amplitude ratios; in particular, we make an extremely sensitive test of the hyperscaling relation dν=2Δ4γd\nu = 2\Delta_4 -\gamma. In two dimensions, we confirm the predicted exponent ν=3/4\nu = 3/4 and the hyperscaling relation; we estimate the universal ratios  / =0.14026±0.00007\ / \ = 0.14026 \pm 0.00007,  / =0.43961±0.00034\ / \ = 0.43961 \pm 0.00034 and Ψ=0.66296±0.00043\Psi^* = 0.66296 \pm 0.00043 (68\% confidence limits). In three dimensions, we estimate ν=0.5877±0.0006\nu = 0.5877 \pm 0.0006 with a correction-to-scaling exponent Δ1=0.56±0.03\Delta_1 = 0.56 \pm 0.03 (subjective 68\% confidence limits). This value for ν\nu agrees excellently with the field-theoretic renormalization-group prediction, but there is some discrepancy for Δ1\Delta_1. Earlier Monte Carlo estimates of ν\nu, which were  ⁣0.592\approx\! 0.592, are now seen to be biased by corrections to scaling. We estimate the universal ratios  / =0.1599±0.0002\ / \ = 0.1599 \pm 0.0002 and Ψ=0.2471±0.0003\Psi^* = 0.2471 \pm 0.0003; since Ψ>0\Psi^* > 0, hyperscaling holds. The approach to Ψ\Psi^* is from above, contrary to the prediction of the two-parameter renormalization-group theory. We critically reexamine this theory, and explain where the error lies.Comment: 87 pages including 12 figures, 1029558 bytes Postscript (NYU-TH-94/09/01