4,299 research outputs found

    Differential expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and beta-catenin in proximal and distal segments of the rat nephron.

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    BACKGROUND: The classical cadherins such as E- and N-cadherin are Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecules that play important roles in the development and maintenance of renal epithelial polarity. Recent studies have shown that a variety of cadherins are present in the kidney and are differentially expressed in various segments of the nephron. However, the interpretation of these findings has been complicated by the fact that the various studies focused on different panels of cadherins and utilized different species. Moreover, since only a few of the previous studies focused on the rat, information regarding the expression and localization of renal cadherins in this important species is lacking. In the present study, we have employed dual immunofluorescent labeling procedures that utilized specific antibodies against either E- or N-cadherin, along with antibodies that target markers for specific nephron segments, to characterize the patterns of cadherin expression in frozen sections of adult rat kidney. RESULTS: The results showed that N-cadherin is the predominant cadherin in the proximal tubule, but is essentially absent in other nephron segments. By contrast, E-cadherin is abundant in the distal tubule, collecting duct and most medullary segments, but is present only at very low levels in the proximal tubule. Additional results revealed different patterns of N-cadherin labeling along various segments of the proximal tubule. The S1 and S2 segments exhibit a fine threadlike pattern of labeling at the apical cell surface, whereas the S3 segment show intense labeling at the lateral cell-cell contacts. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that E- and N-cadherin are differentially expressed in the proximal and distal tubules of rat kidney and they raise the possibility that differences in cadherin expression and localization may contribute to the differences in the susceptibility of various nephron segments to renal pathology or nephrotoxic injury

    Transmission through correlated Cun_nCoCun_n heterostructures

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    The effects of local electronic interactions and finite temperatures upon the transmission across the Cu4_4CoCu4_4 metallic heterostructure are studied in a combined density functional and dynamical mean field theory. It is shown that, as the electronic correlations are taken into account via a local but dynamic self-energy, the total transmission at the Fermi level gets reduced (predominantly in the minority spin channel), whereby the spin polarization of the transmission increases. The latter is due to a more significant dd-electrons contribution, as compared to the non-correlated case in which the transport is dominated by ss and pp electrons.Comment: 29 pages, 7 figures, submited to PR

    Body satisfaction and physical appearance in gender dysphoria

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    Gender dysphoria (GD) is often accompanied by dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image problems. The aim of this study was to compare body satisfaction with perceived appearance by others in various GD subgroups. Data collection was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence. Between 2007 and 2012, 660 adults who fulfilled the criteria of the DSM-IV gender identity disorder diagnosis (1.31:1 male-to-female [MtF]:female-to-male [FtM] ratio) were included into the study. Data were collected before the start of clinical gender-confirming interventions. Sexual orientation was measured via a semi-structured interview whereas onset age was based on clinician report. Body satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Scale. Congruence of appearance with the experienced gender was measured by means of a clinician rating. Overall, FtMs had a more positive body image than MtFs. Besides genital dissatisfaction, problem areas for MtFs included posture, face, and hair, whereas FtMs were mainly dissatisfied with hip and chest regions. Clinicians evaluated the physical appearance to be more congruent with the experienced gender in FtMs than in MtFs. Within the MtF group, those with early onset GD and an androphilic sexual orientation had appearances more in line with their gender identity. In conclusion, body image problems in GD go beyond sex characteristics only. An incongruent physical appearance may result in more difficult psychological adaptation and in more exposure to discrimination and stigmatization

    Thermo-mechanic-electrical coupling in phospholipid monolayers near the critical point

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    Lipid monolayers have been shown to represent a powerful tool in studying mechanical and thermodynamic properties of lipid membranes as well as their interaction with proteins. Using Einstein's theory of fluctuations we here demonstrate, that an experimentally derived linear relationship both between transition entropy S and area A as well as between transition entropy and charge q implies a linear relationships between compressibility \kappa_T, heat capacity c_\pi, thermal expansion coefficient \alpha_T and electric capacity CT. We demonstrate that these couplings have strong predictive power as they allow calculating electrical and thermal properties from mechanical measurements. The precision of the prediction increases as the critical point TC is approached

    Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae promotes Ab 1-42 amyloid processing in Neuronal Cells: A Pathogenic Trigger for Alzheimer\u27s Disease

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    Background: Previously, our laboratory identified Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (Cpn) in autopsied sporadic AD brains. Furthermore, we have developed a BALB/c mouse model that demonstrated infection-induced amyloid plaques similar to those found in AD, and demonstrated that Cpn infection of neuronal cells inhibited apoptotic pathways of cell death. Hypothesis: Our current studies address whether infection with Cpn in neuronal cells triggers abnormal cleavage of the beta amyloid precursor protein (bAPP) into Ab1-42, thereby contributing to amyloid plaque formation characteristic of the pathology identified in AD. Materials and Methods: Human neuroblastoma cells were infected with the respiratory strain AR39 Cpn in vitro, then amyloid processing was analyzed and quantitated using immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and ELISA assays. Results: Cpn was shown to infect neuronal cells and induce intracellular amyloid processing. Cpn infection yielded cytoplasmic labeling of Ab 1-42 that was increased relative to uninfected cells. The ELISA assay revealed that in neuronal cell lysates, Ab 1-42 in the infected cells was increased 3 to 16-fold over the uninfected cells, from 24 to 72hr post infection. Western blot analysis confirmed an increase in Ab 1-42 in the infected neuronal cell lysates. Conclusions: These data suggest that infection of neuronal cells with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae alters the processing of bAPP, thereby producing Ab1-42. Therefore, these studies and previous research reported by our laboratory support the implication of Cpn as a pathogenic agent in perpetuating the hallmark amyloid plaque formations observed in AD. This concept holds major therapeutic considerations for future studies.https://digitalcommons.pcom.edu/posters/1004/thumbnail.jp

    Immunohistological detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's disease brain

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears to evolve from an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. One environmental factor that continues to be of great interest is that of <it>Chlamydia pneumoniae </it>infection and its association with late-onset disease. Detection of this organism in clinical and autopsy samples has proved challenging using a variety of molecular and histological techniques. Our current investigation utilized immunohistochemistry with a battery of commercially available anti-<it>C. pneumoniae </it>antibodies to determine whether <it>C. pneumoniae </it>was present in areas typically associated with AD neuropathology from 5 AD and 5 non-AD control brains.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Immunoreactivity for <it>C. pneumoniae </it>antigens was observed both intracellularly in neurons, neuroglia, endothelial cells, and peri-endothelial cells, and extracellularly in the frontal and temporal cortices of the AD brain with multiple <it>C. pneumoniae</it>-specific antibodies. This immunoreactivity was seen in regions of amyloid deposition as revealed by immunolabeling with two different anti-beta amyloid antibodies. Thioflavin S staining, overlaid with <it>C. pneumoniae </it>immunolabeling, demonstrated no direct co-localization of the organism and amyloid plaques. Further, the specificity of <it>C. pneumoniae </it>labeling of AD brain sections was demonstrated using <it>C. pneumoniae </it>antibodies pre-absorbed against amyloid ő≤ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Anti-<it>C. pneumoniae </it>antibodies, obtained commercially, identified both typical intracellular and atypical extracellular <it>C. pneumoniae </it>antigens in frontal and temporal cortices of the AD brain. <it>C. pneumoniae</it>, amyloid deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles were present in the same regions of the brain in apposition to one another. Although additional studies are required to conclusively characterize the nature of Chlamydial immunoreactivity in the AD brain, these results further implicate <it>C. pneumoniae </it>infection with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.</p

    Detection of Bacterial Antigens and Alzheimer\u27s Disease-like Pathology in the Central Nervous System of BALB/c Mice Following Intranasal Infection with a Laboratory Isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae

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    Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) isolated from an AD brain (96-41). In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1-4 months post-infection (pi). Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3) had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology

    Effect of medical interventions on gender dysphoria and body image : a follow-up study.

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    Objective: The aim of this study from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence is to investigate the status of all individuals who had applied for gender confirming interventions from 2007 to 2009, irrespective of whether they received treatment. The current article describes the study protocol, the effect of medical treatment on gender dysphoria and body image, and the predictive value of (pre) treatment factors on posttreatment outcomes. Methods: Data were collected on medical interventions, transition status, gender dysphoria (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body image (Body Image Scale for transsexuals). In total, 201 people participated in the study (37% of the original cohort). Results: At follow-up, 29 participants (14%) did not receive medical interventions, 36 hormones only (18%), and 136 hormones and surgery (68%). Most transwomen had undergone genital surgery, and most transmen chest surgery. Overall, the levels of gender dysphoria and body dissatisfaction were significantly lower at follow-up compared with clinical entry. Satisfaction with therapy responsive and unresponsive body characteristics both improved. High dissatisfaction at admission and lower psychological functioning at follow-up were associated with persistent body dissatisfaction. Conclusions: Hormone-based interventions and surgery were followed by improvements in body satisfaction. The level of psychological symptoms and the degree of body satisfaction at baseline were significantly associated with body satisfaction at follow-up
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