124 research outputs found

    A TIME-SERIES ANALYSIS OF THE BEEF SUPPLY RESPONSE IN RUSSIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

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    This study analyses the substantial decline in livestock sector in Russia during the last twenty years. The observed decline could be explained by a range of factors, which are supported in this paper through a review of past research results as well as time series data related to the livestock sector. The study concludes with implications and recommendations for agricultural sector development policies.Russia, beef livestock decline, prices of beef, Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries,

    Obstacles for Agricultural Cooperatives in Russia: The Competencies of Experts

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    The Russian government wants to stimulate the development of cooperatives among private farmers. This study evaluates the competencies of the experts who are to guide potential members. The research team conducted a survey among these experts, measuring three theoretically derived dimensions of competencies: knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The results reveal that the experts’ competencies were poor. The respondents overestimated their competencies. Other factors as well indicate that the prospects for agricultural cooperatives are poor in Russia. The large agribusiness firms have a strong market position and much political power. The legal framework for cooperatives is dysfunctional

    Obstacles for agricultural cooperatives in Russia: The competencies of experts

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    The Russian government wants to stimulate the development of cooperatives among private farmers. This study evaluates the competencies of the experts who are to guide potential members. The research team conducted a survey among these experts, measuring three theoretically derived dimensions of competencies: knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The results reveal that the experts’ competencies were poor. The respondents overestimated their competencies. Other factors as well indicate that the prospects for agricultural cooperatives are poor in Russia. The large agribusiness firms have a strong market position and much political power. The legal framework for cooperatives is dysfunctional

    Theoretical analysis of price transmission: a case of joint production

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    In order to improve the market-based relationships between the stakeholders of the food chain and to increase transparency along the chain it is necessary not only to detect the incomplete price relationship, but also to identify the causes of its malfunctioning. A number of studies investigate the mechanism of price transmission in order to theoretically identify the causes of incomplete price transmission. This dissertation intends to enlarge the theory on this issue. Following Gardner (1975), such studies traditionally use the equilibrium displacement methodology for this purpose. Since the middle of the last century, the equilibrium displacement methodology has been developed to incorporate new features, thus, contributing to the new results and discoveries in price transmission theory. For example, McCorriston et al. (2001) study the impact of market power and returns to scale on price transmission elasticity. By assigning certain values to the model parameters they prove that price transmission under perfect competition is higher than under imperfect competition, and that price transmission in the industry with increasing returns to scale, is higher than in the industry, with constant returns to scale. The sensitivity analysis within different scenarios shows that the role of returns to scale may either reinforce or offset the impact of market power. Gardner and McCorriston et al., however, focus on a single output product, whereas agricultural inputs often serve as ingredients for multiple outputs. Multiple outputs are generated spontaneously from a single production process so that the increase in production of one good cannot take place without a simultaneous increase in production of the other good. Therefore this work extends the model of McCorriston et. al. (2001) for price transmission in the case of multi-inputs-multi-outputs. Dairy industry is chosen as an example for this model, which produces goods-complements in production such as butter and skim milk powder or cheese and whey, however, both groups present the example of goods-substitutes in production, such as cheese and butter. Model results show that it is necessary to consider the properties of joint production when estimating the price transmission of jointly-produced goods because the price transmission of a jointly-produced output is different from that of a single output. The price transmission of a joint output is not equal to the share of agricultural input, as it is in the case of a single output (McCorriston et al., 1989). In the case of perfect competition and constant returns to scale, the price transmission of a joint output depends not only on the share of the agricultural input, as in the case of a single output, but additionally on the elasticities of demand of the jointly-produced goods and on the share of the joint output in a gross output. The price of an input is differently transmitted to two jointly-produced goods depending on two independent retail demand elasticities of those goods.Um die Preisbeziehungen entlang der Wertschöpfungskette bei Lebensmitteln zu bewerten, ist es notwendig, die Prozesse der Preisbildung theoretisch zu erklären. Es gibt einige theoretische Modelle, die aber allesamt Monoproduktansätze sind, eine Modellierung der Preiszusammenhänge für den Multiproduktfall fehlt bislang. Die vorliegende Dissertation möchte hierzu einen Beitrag leisten. Ein erstes Modell in diesem Bereich stammt von Gardner (1975), der die Methode der Gleichgewichtsverschiebung verwendet. Die Methode der Gleichgewichtsverschiebung wurde Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts entwickelt und findet noch heute im Bereich der theoretischen Marktmodellierung Anwendung. McCorriston et. al. (2001) verwenden diesen Ansatz, um den Einfluss von Marktmacht und Skalenerträgen auf die Höhe der Preistransmissionselastizität zu bestimmen. Sie können zeigen, dass die Preistransmission bei vollkommenem Wettbewerb stärker ist als bei nicht vollkommenem Wettbewerb. Die Preistransmission ist zudem bei Industrien mit steigenden Skalenerträgen höher als bei Industrien mit konstanten Skalenerträgen. Die Sensibilitätsanalyse im Rahmen verschiedener Szenarien zeigt, dass die Wirkungen der Skalenerträge die der Marktmacht verstärken oder reduzieren können. Sowohl Gardner als auch McCorriston et. al. (2001) haben sich bei ihren Untersuchungen auf einen einzelnen Output beschränkt. Im landwirtschaftlichen Bereich gibt es viele Beispiele für Multiinputs und Multioutputs bei der Verarbeitung, z.B. die Verarbeitung von Milch zu Butter und Magermilchpulver. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird deshalb die Preistransmission aufbauend auf dem Modell von McCorriston et. al. (2001) für einen Multioutput und Multiinputfall modelliert. Als Beispiel dient die Milchverarbeitung, die einerseits Koppelprodukte wie Butter und Milchpulver oder Käse und Molke produziert, wobei beide Gruppen selbst also Käse und Butter Substitute darstellen. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen die Rolle der Verbundproduktion für die Preistransmission. So ist die Preistransmission bei vollkommenem Wettbewerb nicht mehr gleich dem Anteil des landwirtschaftlichen Inputs wie im Modell von McCorriston et. al. (1989). Bei perfektem Wettbewerb sowie konstanten Skalenerträgen hängt die Transmission des Preises verbundener Endprodukte von dem Anteil des landwirtschaftlichen Inputs und von der Elastizität der Nachfrage der gemeinsam produzierten Güter sowie von dem Anteil der verbunden produzierten Produkte am Brutto-Endprodukt ab. Die Preisänderung eines Inputs wird in Abhängigkeit von den Preiselastizitäten der Nachfrage unterschiedlich auf die Preise der im Verbund produzierten Endprodukte übertragen

    Farmers' Willingness to Cooperate: The Case of Tatarstan

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    Despite the purposeful governmental programs, agricultural cooperation in Russia is not developing - on the contrary, the number of cooperatives has been continuously declining. This study investigates the reasons for farmers' refusal to join cooperatives. A prepared questionnaire was distributed in one of the Russian regions (the Republic of Tatarstan), and the collected data were analyzed via the cross tabulation method and logit analysis. According to the study results, the major reasons for not cooperating are as follows: respondent farmers lack the experience of cooperation, they have problems trusting each other, they are not socially active in their communities, and they rarely have a higher education. The study results recommend that the Ministry of Agriculture, willing to develop agricultural cooperation, pay special attention to educating farmers in terms of cooperation. Particular work should be done in teaching farmers to work in groups, trust each other, and organize systems of cooperative ventures in a way that would exclude cheating and free-riding behavior on the parts of both the cooperative members and the leaders. Stimulating social activities among farmers in rural areas might also increase cooperation. In addition, there is a need for agricultural consulting services offering high quality educational courses explaining the advantages of cooperatives and profits that they may provide to the members

    GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Mushrooms in the genus <it>Agaricus </it>have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species <it>A. bisporus</it>. Some <it>Agaricus </it>species are inedible, including <it>A. placomyces </it>and <it>A. pseudopratensis</it>, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for <it>A. placomyces </it>and <it>A. pseudopratensis</it>, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ<sup>7</sup>-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ)-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the <it>Agaricus </it>genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of <it>A. placomyces </it>and <it>A. pseudopratensis</it>, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other <it>Xanthodermatei </it>species.</p

    Il benessere educativo: validazione di un questionario sul benessere a scuola

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    The article presents a part of the trial results of a questionnaire for the detection of Educational well-being in some middle school students in the cities of Rome and Moscow.Educational well-being is defined as a positive perception of the school environment, which includes the sense of satisfaction with what happens at school, the positive perception of the school climate, the psychological safety and reduction of discomfort factors. The research was conducted on two samples of Italian and Russian students.The article presents the psychometric properties of the questionnaire and of the results of the Italian sample of the research.L’articolo presenta una parte dei risultati della sperimentazione di un questionario per la rilevazione del Benessere educativo in alcuni studenti di scuola secondaria di primo grado delle città di Roma e di Mosca. Il benessere educativo è definito come una percezione positiva dell’ambiente scolastico, che comprende il senso di soddisfazione per quanto avviene a scuola, la percezione positiva del clima scolastico, la sicurezza psicologica e la riduzione dei fattori di disagio.La ricerca è stata condotta su due campioni di giudizio italiano e russo. Vengono presentate le proprietà psicometriche dello strumento e parte dei risultati del campione italiano della ricerca

    Influence of uniaxial pressure on dielectric properties of (1-x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–xSrTiO3 for x = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.1 ceramics

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    The publication costs of this article were covered by the Estonian Academy of Sciences and the University of Tartu.The conventional solid-state sintering was applied to synthesized (1-x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-xSrTiO3 (x = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.1) ceramics. Dielectric measurements of these ceramics were taken in the temperature range from 20 to 600 °C, in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 2 MHz and under uniaxial pressure ranging from 10 to 1100 bar. The study of the dielectric behaviour showed that the influence of uniaxial pressure on the investigated properties was considerable. The peaks εm gradually decreased and shifted towards lower temperatures with an increase of uniaxial pressure for all samples. The first effect developed with an increase of the strontium ion concentration. Experimental results revealed most interesting properties of the material in the context of its potential applications.Center of Excellence has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020-WIDESPREAD-01-2016-2017-TeamingPhase2 under grant agreement No. 739508, project CAMART
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