2,058 research outputs found

    Design of the CMS-CASTOR subdetector readout system by reusing existing designs

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    CASTOR is a cylindrical calorimeter with a length of 1.5m and a diameter of 60cm located at 14.3 meters from the CMS interaction point and covering the range in pseudorapidity corresponding to 5.1 < | eta | < 6.6. The CASTOR project was approved in the middle of 2007. Given the limited resources and time, developing a readout system from scratch was excluded. Here the final implementations of the readout chain, the considerations for the different choices as well as the performance of the installed equipment are discussed

    First measurement of elastic, inelastic and total cross-section at √=13 TeV by TOTEM and overview of cross-section data at LHC energies

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    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.The TOTEM collaboration has measured the proton–proton total cross section at √=13 TeV with a luminosity-independent method. Using dedicated ∗=90 m beam optics, the Roman Pots were inserted very close to the beam. The inelastic scattering rate has been measured by the T1 and T2 telescopes during the same LHC fill. After applying the optical theorem the total proton–proton cross section is tot=(110.6 ± 3.4) mb, well in agreement with the extrapolation from lower energies. This method also allows one to derive the luminosity-independent elastic and inelastic cross sections: el=(31.0 ± 1.7) mb and inel=(79.5 ± 1.8) mb

    Dual-Port memory with reconfigurable structure

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    Scaling laws for the elastic scattering amplitude

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    The partial differential equation for the imaginary part of the elastic scattering amplitude is derived. It is solved in the black disk limit. The asymptotical scaling behavior of the amplitude coinciding with the geometrical scaling is proved. Its extension to preasymptotical region and modifications of scaling laws for the differential cross section are considered.Comment: 6 p. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1206.547

    Detailed Analysis of p+p Elastic Scattering Data in the Quark-Diquark Model of Bialas and Bzdak from sqrt{s}=23.5 GeV to 7 TeV

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    Final results of a detailed analysis of p+p elastic scattering data are presented, utilizing the quark-diquark model of protons in a form proposed by Bialas and Bzdak. The differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton collisions is analyzed in a detailed and systematic manner at small momentum transfers, starting from the energy range of CERN ISR at s=23.5 \sqrt{s}= 23.5 GeV, including also recent TOTEM data at the present LHC energies at s=7\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV. These studies confirm the picture that the size of proton increases systematically with increasing energies, while the size of the constituent quarks and diquarks remains approximately independent of (or only increases only slightly with) the colliding energy. The detailed analysis indicates correlations between model parameters and also indicates an increasing role of shadowing at LHC energies. Within the investigated class of models, a simple and model-independent phenomenological relation was discovered that connects the total p+p scattering cross-section to the effective quark, diquark size and their average separation. Our best fits indicate, that the relative error of this phenomenological relation is 10-15% in the considered energy range.Comment: 33 pages, 28 figure

    Elastic pp Scattering at LHC Energies

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    We consider the first LHC data for elastic pp scattering in the framework of Regge theory with multiple Pomeron exchanges. The simplest eikonal approach allows one to describe differential elastic cross sections at LHC, as well as pp and pˉp\bar{p}p scattering at lower collider energies, on a reasonable level.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, and 1 tabl

    On the rise of proton-proton cross-sections at high energies

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    The rise of the total, elastic and inelastic hadronic cross sections at high energies is investigated by means of an analytical parametrization, with the exponent of the leading logarithm contribution as a free fit parameter. Using derivative dispersion relations with one subtraction, two different fits to proton-proton and antiproton-proton total cross section and rho parameter data are developed, reproducing well the experimental information in the energy region 5 GeV - 7 TeV. The parametrization for the total cross sections is then extended to fit the elastic (integrated) cross section data in the same energy region, with satisfactory results. From these empirical results we extract the energy dependence of several physical quantities: inelastic cross section, ratios elastic/total, inelastic/total cross sections, ratio total-cross-section/elastic-slope, elastic slope and optical point. All data, fitted and predicted, are quite well described. We find a statistically consistent solution indicating: (1) an increase of the hadronic cross sections with the energy faster than the log-squared bound by Froissart and Martin; (2) asymptotic limits 1/3 and 2/3 for the ratios elastic/total and inelastic/total cross sections, respectively, a result in agreement with unitarity. These indications corroborate recent theoretical arguments by Ya. I. Azimov on the rise of the total cross section.Comment: 35 pages, 12 figures, discussions improved with further clarifications, references added and updated, one note added, results and conclusions unchanged. Version to be published in J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phy

    First measurement of elastic, inelastic and total cross-section at √s=13 TeV by TOTEM and overview of cross-section data at LHC energies

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    The TOTEM collaboration has measured the proton-proton total cross section at √ s=13 TeV with a luminosity-independent method. Using dedicated β ∗ = 90 m beam optics, the Roman Pots were inserted very close to the beam. The inelastic scattering rate has been measured by the T1 and T2 telescopes during the same LHC fill. After applying the optical theorem the total proton-proton cross section is σtot = (110.6 ± 3.4) mb, well in agreement with the extrapolation from lower energies. This method also allows one to derive the luminosity-independent elastic and inelastic cross sections: σel = (31.0 ± 1.7) mb and σinel = (79.5 ± 1.8) mb

    The TOTEM front end driver, its components and applications in the TOTEM experiment

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    The TOTEM Front End Driver, so-called TOTFED, receives and handles trigger building and tracking data from the TOTEM detectors, and interfaces to the global trigger and data acquisition systems. The TOTFED is based on the VME64x standard and has deliberately been kept modular. It is very flexible and programmable to deal with the different TOTEM sub-detectors and possible evolution of the data treatment and trigger algorithms over the duration of the experiment. The main objectives for each unit are to acquire ondetector data from up to 36 optical links, to perform fast data treatment (reduction, consistency checking, etc.), to transfer it to the next level of the system (via the Slink64 interface), and to store data on request for slow spy readout via VME64x or USB2.0. The TOTFED is fully compatible with CMS and permits TOTEM to run both standalone and together with CMS. The TOTEM Front End Driver, its components and applications in the TOTEM experiment are presented in this paper

    A VME-based readout system for the CMS Preshower sub-detector

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    The CMS preshower is a fine grain detector that comprises 4288 silicon sensors, each containing 32 strips. The raw data are transferred from the detector to the counting room via 1208 optical fibres. Each fibre carries a 600-byte data packet per event. The maximum average level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz results in a total data flow of ~72 GB/s from the preshower. For the readout of the preshower, 56 links to the CMS DAQ have been reserved, each having a bandwidth of 200 MB/s (2 kB/event). The total available downstream bandwidth of GB/s necessitates a reduction in the data volume by a factor of at least 7. A modular VME-based system is currently under development. The main objective of each VME board in this system is to acquire on-detector data from at least 22 optical links, perform on-line data reduction and pass the concentrated data to the CMS DAQ. The principle modules that the system is based on are being developed in collaboration with the TOTEM experiment
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