38 research outputs found

    Induction of Tmolt 4 Leukemia Cell Death by 3,3-Disubstituted- 6,6-pentamethylene-1,5-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,4-diones: Specificity for Type II Inosine 5Ј-Monophosphate Dehydrogenase

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    ABSTRACT Inosine 5Ј-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo pathway for synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is essential for normal cell proliferation and function. New derivatives of the 1,5-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,4-diones were synthesized and examined for antiproliferative effects and selective inhibition of human IMPDH type II activity. The 3,3-disubstituted-6,6-pentamethylene-1,5-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,4-diones proved to be effective antiproliferative agents in tumor cell lines derived from murine and human leukemias, lymphomas, uterine carcinoma, glioma, and breast effusion with ED 50 values (concentration of compound that inhibits 50% of cell growth) ranging from 3.3 to 16 M. The agents acted as antimetabolites suppressing de novo purine biosynthesis at the key regulatory enzyme IMPDH, resulting in the specific suppression of dGTP pool levels by 19 to 64% and DNA synthesis by 39 to 68%. The derivatives were specific inhibitors of IMPDH type II activity as opposed to type I, acting in a competitive manner with respect to inosine 5Ј-monophosphate, K i values of 44.2 to 62 M. In addition, effects of agents on Tmolt 4 cell growth and DNA synthesis could be reversed by coincubation with guanosine. Unlike mycophenolic acid and tiazofurin, the 6,6-pentamethylene-1,5-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,4-diones specifically targeted type II IMPDH, where activity is increased in replicating or neoplastic cells, and did not suppress type I activity, where expression is relatively unaffected by cell proliferation or transformation. Agents were not inhibitors of normal human lung fibroblast cell growth, WI-38, most likely due to the observed isoform selectivity

    SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Displays Moderate Resistance to Neutralizing Antibodies and Spike Protein Properties of Higher Soluble ACE2 Sensitivity, Enhanced Cleavage and Fusogenic Activity

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    The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 lineage variants, Kappa (B.1.617.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2, AY) emerged during the second wave of infections in India, but the Delta variants have become dominant worldwide and continue to evolve. Here, we compared B.1.617 variants for neutralization resistance by convalescent sera, mRNA vaccine-elicited sera, and therapeutic neutralizing antibodies using a pseudovirus neutralization assay. B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2, and AY.1 pseudoviruses showed a modest 1.5- to 4.4-fold reduction in neutralization by convalescent sera and vaccine-elicited sera. In comparison, similar modest reductions were also observed for C.37, P.1, R.1, and B.1.526 pseudoviruses, but 7- and 16-fold reductions for vaccine-elicited and convalescent sera, respectively, were seen for B.1.351 pseudoviruses. Among twenty-three therapeutic antibodies tested, four antibodies showed either complete or partial loss of neutralization against B.1.617.2 pseudoviruses and six antibodies showed either complete or partial loss of neutralization against B.1.617.1 and AY.1 pseudoviruses. Our results indicate that the current mRNA-based vaccines will likely remain effective in protecting against B.1.617 variants. Finally, the P681R substitution confers efficient cleavage of B.1.617 variants’ spike proteins and the spike of Delta variants exhibited greater sensitivity to soluble ACE2 neutralization, as well as fusogenic activity, which may contribute to enhanced spread of Delta variants