10 research outputs found

    Overview of COVID-19 : Current scenario and role of Ayurvedic measures

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    Viral diseases are one of the major causes of devastation in human history world wide. Bacterial and parasitic diseases can be controlled by the use of effective antibodies and anti-parasitic agents respectively. Since viruses do replicate inside the cells and any intervention will affect the cellular metabolism of the host. Development of antiviral drug is a challenge. COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered corona virus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. COVID -19 is declared as a pandemic by WHO in the month of March. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, nowadays it is being managed through symptomatic treatment by using corticosteroids and antibiotics to prevent or subside bacterial infections. As all infected people do not develop severe disease and even most of them are having either mild symptoms or symptoms less. From the recent data we found that most of the patients who developed severe symptoms have already had some chronic ailments like diabetes, HTN and were already in an immune-compromised state. So, through Ayurvedic approach we can try to boost up immunity of the patient and hence can reduce the mortality rate and burden of providing health facilities in our country

    Contribution of Ashtanga Hridya in the field of Kaumarbhritya

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    Vagbhata is one of the three classic writers of Ayurveda, along with Charaka and Sushruta. It has attracted the attention of medical experts due to large number of commentaries by scholars of Ayurveda and translation into other languages. Kaumarbhritya is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which presently deals with care of infants and children, their diseases and treatment. Though main text of this branch is considered to be Kashyapa Samhita which is incompletely available, thus scholars have to look upon other authoritative texts for knowledge of the subject. Ashtanga Hridaya being a comprehensive text and a part of Brihattrayi is apt for quenching thirst of knowledge. This article aims at reviewing the knowledge about Kaumarbhritya available in Ashtanga Hridaya. Acharya Vagbhata has mentioned about Navjaat Shishu Paricharya (concept of neonatal care), Navjaata Shishu Pariksha (Examination of newborn child), Balyakala Samskara (Childhood sacraments), Garbhvyapada (Fetal abnormalities), Vayovibhajan (Classification of age), Prasavkaleenjanya Abhighata (Birth injuries), Balshosha (Malnutrition in children), Stanya and Stanya Dosha (Breast milk and its related diseases), Shishurudan and Vedna (Different activities during cry and Pain), Dantoudbhedjanya Vyadhi (Dentition related diseases), Balayakala Vyadhi (common diseases of infancy and childhood), Lehana (electuary), Aushdhiya Yoga (Formulations) used in children

    Biapenem, a Carbapenem Antibiotic, Elicits Mycobacteria Specific Immune Responses and Reduces the Recurrence of Tuberculosis

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    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) still tops the list of global health burdens even after COVID-19. However, it will sooner transcend the current pandemic due to the prevailing risk of reactivation of latent TB in immunocompromised individuals. The indiscriminate misuse and overuse of antibiotics have resulted in the emergence of deadly drug-resistant variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). This study aims to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM) in generating long-lasting immunity against TB. BPM treatment significantly boosted the activation status of the innate immune arm-macrophages by augmenting p38 signaling. Macrophages further primed and activated the adaptive immune cells CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung and spleen of the infected mice model. Furthermore, BPM treatment significantly amplified the polarization of T lymphocytes toward inflammatory subsets, such as Th1 and Th17. The treatment also helped generate a long-lived central memory T-cell subset. The generation of central memory T lymphocyte subset upon BPM treatment in the murine model led to a significant curtailing in the recurrence of TB due to reactivation and reinfection. These results suggest the potentiality of BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator to improve host defense against M.tb by enriching long-term protective memory cells. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) tops the list of infectious killers around the globe. The emergence of drug-resistant variants of M.tb has been a major hindrance toward realizing the “END TB” goal. Drug resistance has amplified the global burden toward the quest for novel drug molecules targeting M.tb. Host-directed therapy (HDT) offers a lucrative alternative to tackle emerging drug resistance and disease relapse by strengthening the host’s immunity. Through our present study, we have tried to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM). BPM treatment significantly augmented long-lasting immunity against TB by boosting the innate and adaptive immune arms. The generation of long-lived central memory T lymphocyte subset significantly improved the disease outcome and provided sterilizing immunity in the murine model of TB. The present investigation's encouraging results have helped us depict BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator for treating TB

    Luteolin-mediated Kv1.3 K+ channel inhibition augments BCG vaccine efficacy against tuberculosis by promoting central memory T cell responses in mice.

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    Despite the availability of multiple antibiotics, tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide, with one third of the population latently infected and ~2 million deaths annually. The only available vaccine for TB, Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB. Therefore, alternate strategies that enhance vaccine efficacy are urgently needed. Vaccine efficacy and long-term immune memory are critically dependent on central memory T (TCM) cells, whereas effector memory T (TEM) cells are important for clearing acute infections. Recently, it has been shown that inhibition of the Kv1.3 K+ ion channel, which is predominantly expressed on TEM but not TCM cells, profoundly enhances TCM cell differentiation. We exploited this phenomenon to improve TCM:TEM cell ratios and protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in response to BCG vaccination of mice. We demonstrate that luteolin, a plant-derived Kv1.3 K+ channel inhibitor, profoundly promotes TCM cells by selectively inhibiting TEM cells, and significantly enhances BCG vaccine efficacy. Thus, addition of luteolin to BCG vaccination may provide a sustainable means to improve vaccine efficacy by boosting host immunity via modulation of memory T cell differentiation

    Berberine governs NOTCH3/AKT signaling to enrich lung-resident memory T cells during tuberculosis.

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    Stimulation of naïve T cells during primary infection or vaccination drives the differentiation and expansion of effector and memory T cells that mediate immediate and long-term protection. Despite self-reliant rescue from infection, BCG vaccination, and treatment, long-term memory is rarely established against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) resulting in recurrent tuberculosis (TB). Here, we show that berberine (BBR) enhances innate defense mechanisms against M.tb and stimulates the differentiation of Th1/Th17 specific effector memory (TEM), central memory (TCM), and tissue-resident memory (TRM) responses leading to enhanced host protection against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB. Through whole proteome analysis of human PBMCs derived from PPD+ healthy individuals, we identify BBR modulated NOTCH3/PTEN/AKT/FOXO1 pathway as the central mechanism of elevated TEM and TRM responses in the human CD4+ T cells. Moreover, BBR-induced glycolysis resulted in enhanced effector functions leading to superior Th1/Th17 responses in human and murine T cells. This regulation of T cell memory by BBR remarkably enhanced the BCG-induced anti-tubercular immunity and lowered the rate of TB recurrence due to relapse and re-infection. These results thus suggest tuning immunological memory as a feasible approach to augment host resistance against TB and unveil BBR as a potential adjunct immunotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic against TB