3,028 research outputs found

    The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism

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    Angela Kim Harkins is a contributing author, Hymns, Prayers, and Psalms” pp. 753-757. Book description: This comprehensive and authoritative volume is the first reference work devoted exclusively to Second Temple Judaism. A striking and innovative project, it combines the best features of a survey and a reference work. The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism is ecumenical and international in character, bringing together the contributions of a superb group of Jewish, Christian, and other scholars.https://digitalcommons.fairfield.edu/religiousstudies-books/1014/thumbnail.jp

    BIC-seq: a fast algorithm for detection of copy number alterations based on high-throughput sequencing data

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    DNA copy number alterations (CNA), which are amplifications and deletions of certain regions in the genome, play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer and have been shown to be associated with other diseases such as autism, schizophrenia and obesity

    Systems approach reveals photosensitivity and PER2 level as determinants of clock-modulator efficacy

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    In mammals, the master circadian clock synchronizes daily rhythms of physiology and behavior with the day-night cycle. Failure of synchrony, which increases the risk for numerous chronic diseases, can be treated by phase adjustment of the circadian clock pharmacologically, for example, with melatonin, or a CK1delta/epsilon inhibitor. Here, using in silico experiments with a systems pharmacology model describing molecular interactions, and pharmacokinetic and behavioral experiments in cynomolgus monkeys, we find that the circadian phase delay caused by CK1delta/epsilon inhibition is more strongly attenuated by light in diurnal monkeys and humans than in nocturnal mice, which are common preclinical models. Furthermore, the effect of CK1delta/epsilon inhibition strongly depends on endogenous PER2 protein levels, which differs depending on both the molecular cause of the circadian disruption and the patient\u27s lighting environment. To circumvent such large interindividual variations, we developed an adaptive chronotherapeutics to identify precise dosing regimens that could restore normal circadian phase under different conditions. Our results reveal the importance of photosensitivity in the clinical efficacy of clock-modulating drugs, and enable precision medicine for circadian disruption

    A Magnetized Local Supercluster and the Origin of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

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    A sufficiently magnetized Local Supercluster can explain the spectrum and angular distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We show that the spectrum of extragalactic cosmic rays with energies below 1020\sim 10^{20} eV may be due to the diffusive propagation in the Local Supercluster with fields of 108107\sim 10^{-8} - 10^{-7} Gauss. Above 1020\sim 10^{20} eV, cosmic rays propagate in an almost rectilinear way which is evidenced by the change in shape of the spectrum at the highest energies. The fit to the spectrum requires that at least one source be located relatively nearby at 1015\sim 10-15 Mpc away from the Milky Way. We discuss the origin of magnetic fields in the Local Supercluster and the observable predictions of this model.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures, submitted to PR

    Scalable control of mounting and attack by Esr1^+ neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus

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    Social behaviours, such as aggression or mating, proceed through a series of appetitive and consummatory phases that are associated with increasing levels of arousal. How such escalation is encoded in the brain, and linked to behavioural action selection, remains an unsolved problem in neuroscience. The ventrolateral subdivision of the murine ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) contains neurons whose activity increases during male–male and male–female social encounters. Non-cell-type-specific optogenetic activation of this region elicited attack behaviour, but not mounting. We have identified a subset of VMHvl neurons marked by the oestrogen receptor 1 (Esr1), and investigated their role in male social behaviour. Optogenetic manipulations indicated that Esr1^+ (but not Esr1^−) neurons are sufficient to initiate attack, and that their activity is continuously required during ongoing agonistic behaviour. Surprisingly, weaker optogenetic activation of these neurons promoted mounting behaviour, rather than attack, towards both males and females, as well as sniffing and close investigation. Increasing photostimulation intensity could promote a transition from close investigation and mounting to attack, within a single social encounter. Importantly, time-resolved optogenetic inhibition experiments revealed requirements for Esr1^+ neurons in both the appetitive (investigative) and the consummatory phases of social interactions. Combined optogenetic activation and calcium imaging experiments in vitro, as well as c-Fos analysis in vivo, indicated that increasing photostimulation intensity increases both the number of active neurons and the average level of activity per neuron. These data suggest that Esr1^+ neurons in VMHvl control the progression of a social encounter from its appetitive through its consummatory phases, in a scalable manner that reflects the number or type of active neurons in the population

    Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

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    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production

    Therapeutic drug monitoring of ganciclovir:Where are we?

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    Ganciclovir is the mainstay of therapy for the prophylaxis and treatment of Cytomegalovirus. However, therapy with this antiviral agent is hindered by side effects such as myelosuppression, which often leads to therapy cessation. Underdosing, as an attempt to prevent side effects, can lead to drug resistance and therapy failure. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been used to overcome these problems. The purpose of this narrative review was to give an overview of ganciclovir TDM, available assays, population pharmacokinetic models, and discuss the current knowledge gaps. METHODS: For this narrative review, a nonsystematic literature search was performed on the PubMed database in April 2021. The following search terms were used: ganciclovir, valganciclovir, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, population pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring, bioassay, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, chromatography, spectrophotometry, and toxicity. In addition, the reference lists of the included articles were screened. RESULTS: The most common bioanalysis method identified was liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. There are different models presenting ganciclovir IC(50); however, establishing a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target for ganciclovir based on preclinical data is difficult because there are no studies combining dynamic drug exposure in relation to inhibition of viral replication. The data on ganciclovir TDM show large interindividual variability, indicating that TDM may play a role in modifying the dose to reduce toxicity and prevent treatment failure related to low concentrations. The main hurdle for implementing TDM is the lack of robust data to define a therapeutic window. CONCLUSIONS: Although the pharmacokinetics (PK) involved is relatively well-described, both the pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship are not. This is because the studies conducted to date have mainly focused on estimating ganciclovir exposure, and owing to the limited therapeutic options for CMV infections, future studies on ganciclovir are warranted