112 research outputs found

    Curve evolution implementation of the Mumford-Shah functional for image segmentation, denoising, interpolation, and magnification

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    ©2001 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or distribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.DOI: 10.1109/83.935033In this work, we first address the problem of simultaneous image segmentation and smoothing by approaching the Mumford–Shah paradigm from a curve evolution perspective. In particular, we let a set of deformable contours define the boundaries between regions in an image where we model the data via piecewise smooth functions and employ a gradient flow to evolve these contours. Each gradient step involves solving an optimal estimation problem for the data within each region, connecting curve evolution and the Mumford–Shah functional with the theory of boundary-value stochastic processes. The resulting active contour model offers a tractable implementation of the original Mumford–Shah model (i.e., without resorting to elliptic approximations which have traditionally been favored for greater ease in implementation) to simultaneously segment and smoothly reconstruct the data within a given image in a coupled manner. Various implementations of this algorithm are introduced to increase its speed of convergence.We also outline a hierarchical implementation of this algorithm to handle important image features such as triple points and other multiple junctions. Next, by generalizing the data fidelity term of the original Mumford– Shah functional to incorporate a spatially varying penalty, we extend our method to problems in which data quality varies across the image and to images in which sets of pixel measurements are missing. This more general model leads us to a novel PDE-based approach for simultaneous image magnification, segmentation, and smoothing, thereby extending the traditional applications of the Mumford–Shah functional which only considers simultaneous segmentation and smoothing

    A Guide to Delineate the Logic of Neurovascular Signaling in the Brain

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    The neurovascular system may be viewed as a distributed nervous system within the brain. It transforms local neuronal activity into a change in the tone of smooth muscle that lines the walls of arterioles and microvessels. We review the current state of neurovascular coupling, with an emphasis on signaling molecules that convey information from neurons to neighboring vessels. At the level of neocortex, this coupling is mediated by: (i) a likely direct interaction with inhibitory neurons, (ii) indirect interaction, via astrocytes, with excitatory neurons, and (iii) fiber tracts from subcortical layers. Substantial evidence shows that control involves competition between signals that promote vasoconstriction versus vasodilation. Consistent with this picture is evidence that, under certain circumstances, increased neuronal activity can lead to vasoconstriction rather than vasodilation. This confounds naïve interpretations of functional brain images. We discuss experimental approaches to detect signaling molecules in vivo with the goal of formulating an empirical basis for the observed logic of neurovascular control

    Plcg2M28L Interacts With High Fat/High Sugar Diet to Accelerate Alzheimer\u27s Disease-Relevant Phenotypes in Mice.

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    Obesity is recognized as a significant risk factor for Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD). Studies have supported the notion that obesity accelerates AD-related pathophysiology in mouse models of AD. The majority of studies, to date, have focused on the use of early-onset AD models. Here, we evaluate the impact of genetic risk factors on late-onset AD (LOAD) in mice fed with a high fat/high sugar diet (HFD). We focused on three mouse models created through the IU/JAX/PITT MODEL-AD Center. These included a combined risk model wit

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Differential baseline and response profile to IFN-γ gene transduction of IL-6/IL-6 receptor-α secretion discriminate primary tumors versus bone marrow metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinomas in culture

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Understanding of immunobiology of bone marrow metastases (designated BM-NPC) <it>versus </it>primary tumors (P-NPC) of the nasopharynx is far from complete. The aim of this study was to determine if there would be differences between cultured P-NPCs and BM-NPCs with respect to (i) constitutive IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor gp80 subunit (IL-6Rα) levels in the spent media of nontransduced cells, and (ii) IL-6 and IL-6Rα levels in the spent media of cells transduced with a retroviral vector containing the <it>IFN-γ </it>gene.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A panel of NPC cell lines were transduced with the <it>IFN-γ </it>gene through a retroviral vector. Four clonal sublines were isolated <it>via </it>limiting dilution methods. Cytofluorometric analysis was performed for the detection of cell surface antigens of HLA class I, HLA class II and ICAM-1. ELISA was used to assay for IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-6Rα in the spent media of cultured cell lines.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Our results showed that in day 3 culture supernatants, low levels of soluble IL-6 were detected in 5/5 cultured tumors derived from P-NPCs, while much higher constitutive levels of IL-6 were detected in 3/3 metastasis-derived NPC cell lines including one originated from ascites; the difference was significant (<it>p </it>= 0.025). An inverse relationship was found between IL-6Rα and IL-6 in their release levels in cultured P-NPCs and metastasis-derived NPCs. In <it>IFN-γ</it>-transduced-P-NPCs, IL-6 production increased and yet IL-6Rα decreased substantially, as compared to nontransduced counterparts. At variance with P-NPC cells, the respective ongoing IL-6 and IL-6Rα release patterns of BM-NPC cells were not impeded as much following <it>IFN-γ </it>transduction. These observations were confirmed by extended kinetic studies with representative NPC cell lines and clonal sublines. The latter observation with the clonal sublines also indicates that selection for high IL-6 or low IL-6Rα producing subpopulations did not occur as a result of <it>IFN-γ</it>-transduction process. P-NPCs, which secreted constitutively only marginal levels of IFN-γ (8.4 ~ 10.5 pg/ml), could be enhanced to produce higher levels of IFN-γ (6.8- to 10.3-fold increase) after <it>IFN-γ </it>transduction. Unlike P-NPCs, BM-NPCs spontaneously released IFN-γ at moderate levels (83.8 ~ 100.7 pg/ml), which were enhanced by 1.3- to 2.2-fold in the spent media of their <it>IFN-γ</it>-transduced counterparts.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our results showed that cultured P-NPCs and BM-NPCs could be distinguished from one another on the basis of their differential baseline secretion pattern of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-6Rα, and their differential response profiles to <it>IFN-γ </it>gene transfer of the production of these three soluble molecules. These results suggest that the IL-6 and IFN-γ pathways in a background of genetic instability be involved in the acquisition of metastatic behaviour in BM-NPCs.</p

    Heterogeneity of Glia in the Retina and Optic Nerve of Birds and Mammals

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    We have recently described a novel type of glial cell that is scattered across the inner layers of the avian retina [1]. These cells are stimulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) to proliferate, migrate distally into the retina, and up-regulate the nestin-related intermediate filament transitin. These changes in glial activity correspond with increased susceptibility of neurons to excitotoxic damage. This novel cell-type has been termed the Non-astrocytic Inner Retinal Glia-like (NIRG) cells. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the retinas of non-avian species contain cells that resemble NIRG cells. We assayed for NIRG cells by probing for the expression of Sox2, Sox9, Nkx2.2, vimentin and nestin. NIRG cells were distinguished from astrocytes by a lack of expression for Glial Fibrilliary Acidic Protein (GFAP). We examined the retinas of adult mice, guinea pigs, dogs and monkeys (Macaca fasicularis). In the mouse retina and optic nerve head, we identified numerous astrocytes that expressed GFAP, S100β, Sox2 and Sox9; however, we found no evidence for NIRG-like cells that were positive for Nkx2.2, nestin, and negative for GFAP. In the guinea pig retina, we did not find astrocytes or NIRG cells in the retina, whereas we identified astrocytes in the optic nerve. In the eyes of dogs and monkeys, we found astrocytes and NIRG-like cells scattered across inner layers of the retina and within the optic nerve. We conclude that NIRG-like cells are present in the retinas of canines and non-human primates, whereas the retinas of mice and guinea pigs do not contain NIRG cells

    Altered Ultrasonic Vocalization and Impaired Learning and Memory in Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model with a Large Maternal Deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3

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    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with mental retardation, absence of language development, characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and epilepsy, happy disposition, movement or balance disorders, and autistic behaviors. The molecular defects underlying AS are heterogeneous, including large maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11–q13 (70%), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15 (5%), imprinting mutations (rare), and mutations in the E6-AP ubiquitin ligase gene UBE3A (15%). Although patients with UBE3A mutations have a wide spectrum of neurological phenotypes, their features are usually milder than AS patients with deletions of 15q11–q13. Using a chromosomal engineering strategy, we generated mutant mice with a 1.6-Mb chromosomal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3, which inactivated the Ube3a and Gabrb3 genes and deleted the Atp10a gene. Homozygous deletion mutant mice died in the perinatal period due to a cleft palate resulting from the null mutation in Gabrb3 gene. Mice with a maternal deletion (m−/p+) were viable and did not have any obvious developmental defects. Expression analysis of the maternal and paternal deletion mice confirmed that the Ube3a gene is maternally expressed in brain, and showed that the Atp10a and Gabrb3 genes are biallelically expressed in all brain sub-regions studied. Maternal (m−/p+), but not paternal (m+/p−), deletion mice had increased spontaneous seizure activity and abnormal EEG. Extensive behavioral analyses revealed significant impairment in motor function, learning and memory tasks, and anxiety-related measures assayed in the light-dark box in maternal deletion but not paternal deletion mice. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) recording in newborns revealed that maternal deletion pups emitted significantly more USVs than wild-type littermates. The increased USV in maternal deletion mice suggests abnormal signaling behavior between mothers and pups that may reflect abnormal communication behaviors in human AS patients. Thus, mutant mice with a maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3 provide an AS mouse model that is molecularly more similar to the contiguous gene deletion form of AS in humans than mice with Ube3a mutation alone. These mice will be valuable for future comparative studies to mice with maternal deficiency of Ube3a alone

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∼99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∼1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    The Changing Landscape for Stroke\ua0Prevention in AF: Findings From the GLORIA-AF Registry Phase 2