17 research outputs found

    The lichens from the City of Petrozavodsk in the Herbarium of the Botanical Museum, University of Helsinki

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    A historical lichen collection in the Herbarium of the Botanical Museum, University of Helsinki, collected in the 19th and 20th centuries from the territory of Petrozavodsk (Republic of Karelia, Russia) was examined. A revision of 354 herbarium packets containing 674 specimens resulted in a list of 227 species of lichens and lichenicolous or non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Our historical list added 102 new species to the lichen flora of the city, which now contains 330 species. Xylographa trunciseda is a new lichen record for North-Western Russia. Seven species were registered for Karelia for the first time. 40 species are new to the biogeographic province Karelia olonetsensis and four species – to Karelia onegensis.

    The lichens of forest rocky communities of mountain Olovgora (Arkhangelsk Region, Northwest Russia)

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    The present study reports 223 species and three subspecies of lichens from forest rocky communities of mountain Olovgora, which is the highest point of the Vetreny Poyas ridge (Arkhangelsk Region, NW Russia). A total of 82 species are new for the mainland area of Arkhangelsk Region. The species Bryoria glabra has been reported for the first time for European Russia. Two recorded lichen species, Cladonia bellidiflora and Lobaria pulmonaria, are in the Red Data Book of Arkhangelsk Region. The occurrence of old-growth forests, high heterogeneity of conditions, presence of an altitudinal gradient and the proximity to the sea lead to the rich diversity of lichens in this area.

    Features of the structural organization and biomorphology of dominant plant species of Holarctic seas’ coasts along the tidal gradient

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    Investigations of the population and biomorphology of dominant species Plantago maritima L. (fam. Plantaginaceae) and Triglochin maritima L. (fam. Juncaginaceae) along the tidal gradient of the coasts of the White Sea are presented. The western coast of the White Sea has been chosen as a sample of Holarctic seas’ coasts. These 2 euhalophyte species represent a group of the allochthonous elements that came from to the Arctic coasts the Middle Asia in the Pliocene-Pleistocene time. In our study, we evaluated structural and functional characteristics of populations of the two species along the tidal gradient. We found that vitality-ontogenetic structure of the populations and their biomorphological characteristics significantly differ depending on the tidal level and substrate structure. The different adaptive peculiarities of these species growing in these habitats were observed. Along the gradient from sea level to the native shore, the biomorphological indexes (number of shoots per plant, number of leaves per shoots, leaves parameters, length of the floriferous stem and spike, dry mass of aboveground shoots of plants) of the Triglochin maritima populations significantly decreased, while the same indexes of the Plantago maritima populations increased. The obtained results show the significant variability of all morphometric parameters of vegetative organs as well as generative features along the tidal gradient of these circumpolar plant species

    New and rare lichens and allied fungi from Arkhangelsk Region, North-West Russia. II

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    Information about 38 species of lichens is presented. In total, 18 species are newly recorded for Arkhangelsk Region, 11 species are new for its mainland area. New localities for 9 rare species are presented. Thalloidima physaroides is new for the territory of Northwest Russia. The species Sclerophora peronella is reported for the second time in the whole territory of Russia, Calicium pinicola – in European Russia and Rhizocarpon simillimum – in Northwest Russia. For Vezdaea rheocarpa and Pilophorus robustus the westernmost localities in Russia are reported. The new localities of 9 species included in the Red Data Book of Arkhangelsk Region are presented. Six species are added to the list of lichens of Vodlozersky National Park

    Comparative study of structural and ecophysiological features of lichens of different ecological groups in rocky forest communities of northernmost boreal zone (Karelia, Russia)

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    The anatomical (thickness of layers of fungal and algal symbionts) and ecophysiological parameters (the content of photosynthetic pigments) of two lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes and Umbilicaria hyperborea) from rocky forest communities of northernmost boreal zone (North-West of Russia) were studied. H. physodes is a lichen with foliose thallus morphology and circumpolar distribution which colonizes almost every substrate. U. hyperborea is strictly epilithic lichen with umbilicate type of thallus morphology and arcto-alpine distribution. Despite the fact that the photobiont in two species are closely related taxa (unicellular green algae of the genus Trebouxia) a high variability of photosynthetic pigments content in H. physodes thalli has been revealed, whereas in U. hyperborea, the mycobiotic showed high structural variability. It can be concluded that both mycobiont and photobiont contribute to their adaptation to environmental factors. In the present study it was obtained that the proportion of variation in anatomical structures and the content of photosynthetic pigments probably less depends on taxonomic position of photobiont and more determined by the plasticity of the individual components of the symbiotrophic organism

    Adaptations of epilithic lichens to the microclimate conditions of the White Sea coast

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    Anatomical and functional features of the following three epilithic lichens Umbilicaria torrefacta, Physcia caesia, Physcia dubia were studied. These species have different morphological characteristics of thalli and occupy similar environmental conditions on supralittoral of the White Sea coast. The studied lichens are widespread in the territory of Karelia. U. torrefacta is an obligate epilithic species, Physcia caesia and Physcia dubia colonize both bark of trees and stones. Within the study area, these species were found only on coastal boulders. Photobiont of all studied lichens is unicellular green alga of the genus Trebouxia (Purvis et al. 1992). Based on the study, it was found that Ph. caesia adapts to the environmental conditions through the variability of photosynthetic pigments level which is confirmed by a strong variation of the chlorophylls a/b ratio and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio (coefficient of variation, CV > 42%) with the stability of anatomical structures (CV ≤ 11%) – functional adaptation. Lichen Ph. dubia adapts through the variability of anatomical layers (upper cortex, algal layer, medullae, lower cortex, thallus thickness) (CV > 22%), and amounts of photosynthetic pigments (CV > 19%) – structural and functional adaptation. For U. torrefacta, the structural adaptation to environmental conditions (CV thickness of anatomical layers > 28%, CV amounts of photosynthetic pigments – 7, 8%) was recorded

    The lichens of forest rocky communities of the hill Muroigora (Arkhangelsk Region, Northwest Russia)

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    The present study reports 188 species and 2 subspecies of lichens and allied fungi from forest rocky communities of the hill Muroigora situated in the Arkhangelsk part of the National park “Vodlozersky” (Arkhangelsk Region, NW Russia). Lepraria ecorticata is new to Russia, and 13 more species are new for the mainland area of the Arkhangelsk Region: Arthonia mediella, Arthonia vinosa, Bacidia igniarii, Bryoria vrangiana, Chaenothecopsis pusiola, Cladonia caespiticia, Lecidea plana, Lepraria borealis, Micarea misella, Pertusaria pustulata, Schaereria cinereorufa, Xanthoparmelia pulla and Xylographa trunciseda. Two lichen species, Bryoria fremontii and Lobaria pulmonaria, are in the Red Data Books of the Arkhangelsk Region and Russian Federation. A total of 89 species are reported as new for the Vodlozersky National Park.

    Activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in Lobaria pulmonaria from forest communities of middle and northernmost boreal zone (NW Russia)

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    The present study was carried out to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the protein content in Lobaria pulmonaria thalli of various ontogenetic stages (studied groups: juvenile and mature) in forest communities of the middle and northernmost boreal subzones (i.e. two habitat groups). Obtained results showed that the protein content in thalli of different ontogenetic stages and habitats did not differ significantly between the two studied groups and ranged from 3.4 to 3.8 mg g-1. Peroxidase (POD) activity was low and did not exceed 0.01 µmol TG mg-1 of protein. No significant differences between the studied groups (ontogenetic and habitat) in POD was found. On the contrary, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed significant differences. SOD activity ranged from 5.1 to 6.3 U mg-1 of protein. Significant differences were found between the SOD activity in juvenile and mature L. pulmonaria thalli in the communities of the northern boreal subzone (p = 0.043) and in juvenile thalli from different habitats (р = 0.020). In general, CAT activity ranged from 187 to 605 μmol H2O2 mg-1 protein. Significant differences in CAT activity were apparent between the thalli from the middle and northernmost boreal subzone communities (p=0.040). The differences in CAT activity values in juvenile and mature thalli in the northernmost boreal subzone (p = 0.006) were found as well. Juvenile thalli from different habitats (p = 0.008) differed. As a result we suggest that juvenile thalli might be more suitable for the purposes of bioindication of environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, since they are more sensitive in comparison to mature thalli

    Cell wall functional activity and metal accumulation of halophytic plant species Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritima on the White Sea littoral zone (NW Russia)

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    The presented study supplements the knowledge on ion-exchange capacity, swelling capacity (elasticity) of the plant cell wall, and the accumulation of heavy metals in halophytic species Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritima in the tidal zone of the White Sea western coast. The littoral soils of the coastal territories are sandy or rocky-sandy, medium and slightly saline with poor content of organic substances, Mn, Zn, Ni, and Pb. Studied soils are considered as uncontaminated by heavy metals because they contain background amounts of Fe and Cu. Sea water is significantly polluted by Fe (3.8 MPC) and Ni (55 MPC), has poor content of Zn and Cu and background level of Pb and Mn. The coastal dominant plant species P. maritima and T. maritima were characterized by intensive metals accumulation which was reflected in the coefficient of biological absorption (CBA) of metal by a whole plant. For P. maritima the following metal accumulation series was obtained: Cu (3.29)> Zn (2.81)> Ni (1.57)> Pb (1.30)> Mn (1.21)> Fe (0.97), and for T. maritima: Ni (3.80)> Fe (2.08)> Cu (1.91)> Zn (1.84)> Pb (1.51)> Mn (1.31). Roots accumulated 50–70% of Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mn of the total metal content in the plant while leaves and stems contained 30–50%. Fe was allocated mainly in the roots (80%). The ion-exchange capacity of the plant cell wall for P. maritima and T. maritima was established as follows correspondingly: 3570–3700 and 2710–3070 μmol g-1 dry cell weight per leaf; 2310–2350 and 1160–1250 μmol g-1 dry cell weight per root

    Diversity of lichens and allied fungi on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the middle boreal forests of Republic of Karelia (Russia)

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    A detailed study of lichen diversity and estimation of epiphytic lichen cover characteristics on spruce as a key ecosystem component was performed in boreal forests of Karelia (NW Russia). The aims of the present paper are: (1) to study lichen diversity on Norway spruce in the middle boreal forests of southern Karelia (NW Russia), and (2) to estimate the main characteristics of epiphytic lichen cover on spruce trunks and branches. In total, 158 species of lichens and allied fungi were found on spruce, including 108 species on trunks, 78 on branches and 55 on snags. Seventeen species are listed in the Red Data Book of Republic of Karelia. Ten species are new for the biogeographical province Karelia transonegensis and two for the province Karelia onegensis. Twenty-two species are considered old-growth forest indicators. The total epiphytic lichen cover on spruce trees averaged 59% at the trunk base, 12% at a height of 1.3 m above ground level and 61% on branches. Predominantly, only 12 species contributed to the lichen cover of trunk and branches. Despite the predominance of crustose lichens colonising spruce trees, the main epiphytic lichen cover both on trunks and branches was provided largely by foliose species (57% of the total cover). Due to a variety of morphological features, spruce provides diverse microhabitats, which leads to high lichen species richness with different ecological requirements. Spruce trees play a significant role in maintaining the diversity and conservation of rare species
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