63 research outputs found

    Expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human ERK5 is a client of the Hsp90 chaperone that complements loss of the Slt2p (Mpk1p) cell integrity stress-activated protein kinase

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    ERK5 is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase regulated in human cells by diverse mitogens and stresses but also suspected of mediating the effects of a number of oncogenes. Its expression in the slt2Delta Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant rescued several of the phenotypes caused by the lack of Slt2p (Mpk1p) cell integrity MAP kinase. ERK5 is able to provide this cell integrity MAP kinase function in yeast, as it is activated by the cell integrity signaling cascade that normally activates Slt2p and, in its active form, able to stimulate at least one key Slt2p target (Rlm1p, the major transcriptional regulator of cell wall genes). In vitro ERK5 kinase activity was abolished by Hsp90 inhibition. ERK5 activity in vivo was also lost in a strain that expresses a mutant Hsp90 chaperone. Therefore, human ERK5 expressed in yeast is an Hsp90 client, despite the widely held belief that the protein kinases of the MAP kinase class are non-Hsp90-dependent activities. Two-hybrid and protein binding studies revealed that strong association of Hsp90 with ERK5 requires the dual phosphorylation of the TEY motif in the MAP kinase activation loop. These phosphorylations, at positions adjacent to the Hsp90-binding surface recently identified for a number of protein kinases, may cause a localized rearrangement of this MAP kinase region that leads to creation of the Hsp90-binding surface. Complementation of the slt2Delta yeast defect by ERK5 expression establishes a new tool with which to screen for novel agonists and antagonists of ERK5 signaling as well as for isolating mutant forms of ERK5

    CDK-dependent Hsp70 phosphorylation controls G1 cyclin abundance and cell-cycle progression

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    In budding yeast, the essential functions of Hsp70 chaperones Ssa1-4 are regulated through expression level, isoform specificity, and cochaperone activity. Suggesting a novel regulatory paradigm, we find that phosphorylation of Ssa1 T36 within a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus site conserved among Hsp70 proteins alters cochaperone and client interactions. T36 phosphorylation triggers displacement of Ydj1, allowing Ssa1 to bind the G1 cyclin Cln3 and promote its degradation. The stress CDK Pho85 phosphorylates T36 upon nitrogen starvation or pheromone stimulation, destabilizing Cln3 to delay onset of S phase. In turn, the mitotic CDK Cdk1 phosphorylates T36 to block Cln3 accumulation in G2/M. Suggesting broad conservation from yeast to human, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Hsc70 T38 similarly regulates Cyclin D1 binding and stability. These results establish an active role for Hsp70 chaperones as signal transducers mediating growth control of G1 cyclin abundance and activity

    Keck Planet Finder: design updates

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    The Keck Planet Finder (KPF) is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, high-stability spectrometer in development at the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory for the W.M. Keck Observatory. KPF is designed to characterize exoplanets via Doppler spectroscopy with a goal of a single measurement precision of 0.3 m s-1 or better, however its resolution and stability will enable a wide variety of astrophysical pursuits. Here we provide post-preliminary design review design updates for several subsystems, including: the main spectrometer, the fabrication of the Zerodur optical bench; the data reduction pipeline; fiber agitator; fiber cable design; fiber scrambler; VPH testing results and the exposure meter

    First virtual international congress on cellular and organismal stress responses, november 5–6, 2020

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    Members of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI), Patricija van Oosten-Hawle (University of Leeds, UK), Mehdi Mollapour (SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA), Andrew Truman (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA) organized a new virtual meeting format which took place on November 5–6, 2020. The goal of this congress was to provide an international platform for scientists to exchange data and ideas among the Cell Stress and Chaperones community during the Covid-19 pandemic. Here we will highlight the summary of the meeting and acknowledge those who were honored by the CSSI
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