7,625 research outputs found

    Stimulated Raman backscattering of laser radiation in deep plasma channels

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    Stimulated Raman backscattering (RBS) of intense laser radiation confined by a single-mode plasma channel with a radial variation of plasma frequency greater than a homogeneous-plasma RBS bandwidth is characterized by a strong transverse localization of resonantly-driven electron plasma waves (EPW). The EPW localization reduces the peak growth rate of RBS and increases the amplification bandwidth. The continuum of non-bound modes of backscattered radiation shrinks the transverse field profile in a channel and increases the RBS growth rate. Solution of the initial-value problem shows that an electromagnetic pulse amplified by the RBS in the single-mode deep plasma channel has a group velocity higher than in the case of homogeneous-plasma Raman amplification. Implications to the design of an RBS pulse compressor in a plasma channel are discussed.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures; submitted to Physics of Plasma

    Supersolidity and phase diagram of softcore bosons in a triangular lattice

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    We study the softcore extended Bose Hubbard model in a two-dimensional triangular lattice by using the quantum Monte Carlo methods. The ground state phase diagram of the system exhibits a very fruitful structure. Except the Mott insulating state, four kinds of solid states with respect to the commensurate filling factors ρ=1/3,2/3\rho=1/3,2/3 and ρ=1\rho=1 are identified. Two of them (CDW II and CDW III) are newly predicted. In incommensurate fillings, superfluid, spuersolid as well as phase separation states are detected . As in the case for the hardcore bosons, a supersolid phase exists in 1/3<ρ<2/31/3<\rho<2/3 while it is unstable towards the phase separation in ρ<1/3\rho<1/3. However, this instability is refrained in 2/3<ρ<12/3<\rho<1 due to the softening of the bosons and then a supersolid phase survives.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Crossed Andreev reflection in diffusive contacts

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    Crossed Andreev reflection in multiterminal structures in the diffusive regime is addressed within the quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel formalism. The elastic cotunneling and crossed Andreev reflection of quasiparticles give nonlocal currents and voltages (depending on the actual biasing of the devices) by virtue of the induced proximity effect in the normal metal electrodes. The magnitude of the nonlocal processes is found to scale with the square of the barrier transparency and to decay exponentially with interface spacing. Nonlocal cotunneling and crossed Andreev conductances are found to contribute equally to the nonlocal current, which is of relevance to the use of normal metal-superconducting heterostructures as sources of entanglement

    What makes a crystal supersolid ?

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    For nearly half a century the supersolid phase of matter has remained mysterious, not only eluding experimental observation, but also generating a great deal of controversy among theorists. Recent discovery of what is interpreted as a non-classical moment of inertia at low temperature in solid He-4 has elicited much excitement as a possible first observation of a supersolid phase. In the two years following the discovery, however, more puzzles than answers have been provided to the fundamental issue of whether the supersolid phase exists, in helium or any other naturally occurring condensed matter system. Presently, there is no established theoretical framework to understand the body of experimental data on He-4. Different microscopic mechanisms that have been suggested to underlie superfluidity in a perfect quantum crystal do not seem viable for \he4, for which a wealth of experimental and theoretical evidence points to an insulating crystalline ground state. This perspective addresses some of the outstanding problems with the interpretation of recent experimental observations of the apparent superfluid response in He-4 (seen now by several groups) and discusses various scenarios alternative to the homogeneous supersolid phase, such as superfluidity induced by extended defects of the crystalline structure which include grain boundaries, dislocations, anisotropic stresses, etc. Can a metastable superfluid "glassy" phase exist, and can it be relevant to some of the experimental observations ? One of the most interesting and unsolved fundamental questions is what interatomic potentials, given the freedom to design one, can support an ideal supersolid phase in continuous space, and can they be found in Nature.Comment: Perspective to appear in Advances in Physics, 25 pages, 7 figure