126 research outputs found

    The Economic Risks of Globalization: Expert and Public Opinion Survey Results. Global Choices 1/2012

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    The world is changing at breathtaking speed. Global challenges, from climate change to cyber crime, are growing increasingly complex. Emerging economic powers in Asia and Latin America are assuming greater roles in geopolitical matters. The shift of economic power to the east is creating new dependencies. In short, the ground rules of international cooperation are being rewritten. The “Global Choices” publication series takes a closer look at these changes and how they affect politics, business and society. By facilitating an informed understanding of these changes, this series aims to contribute constructively to debates regarding the principles of a new global order and the reforms needed to improve international cooperation. “Global Choices” is also a call to action because globalization is not a matter of immutable fate; its trajectory can be shaped. “Global Choices” therefore underscores the fact that the power to make sound choices lies within our hands

    Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering and X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Solid Proline and Proline Solutions

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    The amino group of proline is part of a pyrrolidine ring, which makes it unique among the proteinogenic amino acids. To unravel its full electronic structure, proline in solid state and aqueous solution is investigated using X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering. By controlling the pH value of the solution, proline is studied in its cationic, zwitterionic, and anionic configurations. The spectra are analyzed within a “building-block principle” by comparing with suitable reference molecules, i.e., acetic acid, cysteine, and pyrrolidine, as well as with spectral calculations based on density functional theory. We find that the electronic structure of the carboxyl group of proline is very similar to that of other amino acids as well as acetic acid. In contrast, the electronic structure of the amino group is significantly different and strongly influenced by the ring structure of proline

    Optimizing a biopsy needle using a simulation model

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    The method of biopsying biological tissue is an established procedure of minimally invasive medicine to extract samples for the determination of the presence or extent of a disease. Therefore punch biopsy is the most frequently applied method in case of prostate or breast cancer. The biopsy system is monitored during the penetration process into tissue via sonography. These observations of the procedure showed a considerable deflection of the needle tip. It is caused by unbalanced forces acting on the tip and by the low bending stiffness of the system itself. Government financed experimental studies using realistic phantom tissue have been conducted to quantify the needle deflection and to develop a mathematical approach to simulate this effect. This simulation has used a combination of a deformable model of the biopsy system in combination with a parameterized tissue model in multibody simulation software Recurdyn. It is now possible to anticipate the needle deflection, to get to know about the acting forces and to optimize the geometry of the needle tip

    Position paper on the use of mandibular advancement devices in adults with sleep-related breathing disorders: A position paper of the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft Zahnaerztliche Schlafmedizin, DGZS)

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    Custom-made mandibular advancement devices are an effective treatment option for snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Evidence-based data indicates their efficacy, and international sleep societies recommend oral appliance (OA) therapy for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The following position paper by the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (DGZS) is to guide the interdisciplinary team (sleep physician and sleep disorder dentist) in detail when to prescribe oral appliances. This position paper supports the responsible use of OA as an effective treatment option for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The paper advises of proper indication regarding OSA severity, body mass index (BMI), and dentition. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary approach of oral appliance therapy and suggests treatment under the guidance of dentists trained in dental sleep medicine

    Continuous Symmetry Breaking in a Two-dimensional Rydberg Array

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    Spontaneous symmetry breaking underlies much of our classification of phases of matter and their associated transitions. The nature of the underlying symmetry being broken determines many of the qualitative properties of the phase; this is illustrated by the case of discrete versus continuous symmetry breaking. Indeed, in contrast to the discrete case, the breaking of a continuous symmetry leads to the emergence of gapless Goldstone modes controlling, for instance, the thermodynamic stability of the ordered phase. Here, we realize a two-dimensional dipolar XY model -- which exhibits a continuous spin-rotational symmetry -- utilizing a programmable Rydberg quantum simulator. We demonstrate the adiabatic preparation of correlated low-temperature states of both the XY ferromagnet and the XY antiferromagnet. In the ferromagnetic case, we characterize the presence of long-range XY order, a feature prohibited in the absence of long-range dipolar interaction. Our exploration of the many-body physics of XY interactions complements recent works utilizing the Rydberg-blockade mechanism to realize Ising-type interactions exhibiting discrete spin rotation symmetry.Comment: 18 pages, 3 figures in main text, 9 figures in supplemental method
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