18 research outputs found

    The Role of KH-Type Splicing Regulatory Protein (KSRP) for Immune Functions and Tumorigenesis

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    Post-transcriptional control of gene expression is one important mechanism that enables stringent and rapid modulation of cytokine, chemokines or growth factors expression, all relevant for immune or tumor cell function and communication. The RNA-binding protein KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) controls the mRNA stability of according genes by initiation of mRNA decay and inhibition of translation, and by enhancing the maturation of microRNAs. Therefore, KSRP plays a pivotal role in immune cell function and tumor progression. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about KSRP with regard to the regulation of immunologically relevant targets, and the functional role of KSRP on immune responses and tumorigenesis. KSRP is involved in the control of myeloid hematopoiesis. Further, KSRP-mediated mRNA decay of pro-inflammatory factors is necessary to keep immune homeostasis. In case of infection, functional impairment of KSRP is important for the induction of robust immune responses. In this regard, KSRP seems to primarily dampen T helper cell 2 immune responses. In cancer, KSRP has often been associated with tumor growth and metastasis. In summary, aside of initiation of mRNA decay, the KSRP-mediated regulation of microRNA maturation seems to be especially important for its diverse biological functions, which warrants further in-depth examination

    Tristetraprolin regulation of interleukin-22 production

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    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a STAT3-activating cytokine displaying characteristic AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of its mRNA. This architecture suggests gene regulation by modulation of mRNA stability. Since related cytokines undergo post-transcriptional regulation by ARE-binding tristetraprolin (TTP), the role of this destabilizing protein in IL-22 production was investigated. Herein, we demonstrate that TTP-deficient mice display augmented serum IL-22. Likewise, IL-22 mRNA was enhanced in TTP-deficient splenocytes and isolated primary T cells. A pivotal role for TTP is underscored by an extended IL-22 mRNA half-life detectable in TTP-deficient T cells. Luciferase-reporter assays performed in human Jurkat T cells proved the destabilizing potential of the human IL-22-3'-UTR. Furthermore, overexpression of TTP in HEK293 cells substantially decreased luciferase activity directed by the IL-22-3'-UTR. Transcript destabilization by TTP was nullified upon cellular activation by TPA/A23187, an effect dependent on MEK1/2 activity. Accordingly, IL-22 mRNA half-life as determined in TPA/A23187-stimulated Jurkat T cells decreased under the influence of the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Altogether, data indicate that TTP directly controls IL-22 production, a process counteracted by MEK1/2. The TTP-dependent regulatory pathway described herein likely contributes to the role of IL-22 in inflammation and cancer and may evolve as novel target for pharmacological IL-22 modulation