344 research outputs found

    Organization of plastid genomes in the freshwater red algal order Batrachospermales (Rhodophyta)

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    Little is known about genome organization in members of the order Batrachospermales, and the infra-ordinal relationship remains unresolved. Plastid (cp) genomes of seven members of the freshwater red algal order Batrachospermales were sequenced, with the following aims: (i) to describe the characteristics of cp genomes and compare these with other red algal groups; (ii) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among these members to better understand the infra-ordinal classification. Cp genomes of Batrachospermales are large, with several cases of gene loss, they are gene-dense (high gene content for the genome size and short intergenic regions) and have highly conserved gene order. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide genome data roughly supports the current taxonomic system for the order. Comparative analyses confirm data for members of the class Florideophyceae that cp genomes in Batrachospermales is highly conserved, with little variation in gene composition. However, relevant new features were revealed in our study: genome sizes in members of Batrachospermales are close to the lowest values reported for Florideophyceae; differences in cp genome size within the order are large in comparison with other orders (Ceramiales, Gelidiales, Gracilariales, Hildenbrandiales, and Nemaliales); and members of Batrachospermales have the lowest number of protein-coding genes among the Florideophyceae. In terms of gene loss, apcF, which encodes the allophycocyanin beta subunit, is absent in all sequenced taxa of Batrachospermales. We reinforce that the interordinal relationships between the freshwater orders Batrachospermales and Thoreales within the Nemaliophycidae is not well resolved due to limited taxon sampling

    Evaluaci√≥n mixta de actividades transversales en el grado de Arquitectura basadas en la metodolog√≠a de la ‚ÄúLesson Study‚ÄĚ

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    El presente trabajo muestra los resultados de la preparación conjunta entre asignaturas de diversas materias, así como la evaluación tanto por parte de profesorado como de alumnado, de una actividad transversal de primer curso de arquitectura en la que se pretende como objetivo fundamental romper los límites entre disciplinas, entendiendo cómo todas ellas representan distintos aspectos de la arquitectura que se funden en un proyecto unitario final. La experiencia se enmarca dentro de las actividades transversales del primer curso de los grados de Estudios en Arquitectura y Arquitectura Técnica y Edificación, y también de una de las prácticas seleccionadas en el proyecto de innovación docente ReCREA, financiado por Aristos Campus Mundus. Los resultados muestran como este tipo de actividades coordinadas motivan especialmente al alumno, aspecto que está directamente relacionado con una mejora curricular

    Incidence, risk factors, and temporal trends of penile cancer:a global population-based study

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    Objectives: To examine the global disease burden and country-specific trends of penile cancer incidence by age group and investigate its associations with several factors. Materials and Methods: The Global Cancer Observatory database was interrogated for penile cancer incidence. The 10-year cancer incidence rates were collected from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus. The country-specific data were extracted from the World Health Organization Global Health Observatory and Global Burden of Disease databases for conducting risk factors analysis. The penile cancer incidence was presented using age-standardised rates. Its associations with various factors were examined by linear regression, while the incidence trend was estimated using joinpoint regression and presented as average annual percentage change with 95% confidence intervals in different age groups. Results: There were an estimated 36 068 new cases of penile cancer in 2020. There was a considerable geographical disparity in the disease burden of penile cancer, with South America reporting the highest incidence. Overall, alcohol drinking, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and unsafe sex were positively associated with a higher penile cancer incidence, while circumcision was found to be a protective factor. There has been a mixed trend in penile cancer incidence overall, but an increasing trend was found among younger males. Conclusions: There was a global variation in the penile cancer burden associated with prevalence of alcohol drinking, HIV infection, unsafe sex, and circumcision. The increasing penile cancer incidence in the younger population is worrying and calls for early detection and preventive interventions.</p

    Outcomes of men with HIV and germ cell cancer : Results from an international collaborative study

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    Background: Previous studies have shown that men with HIV and germ cell cancer (HIV-GCC) have inferior overall survival (OS) in comparison with their HIV-negative counterparts. However, little information is available on treatments and outcomes of HIV-GCC in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: This study examined men living with HIV who were 18 years old or older and had a diagnosis of histologically proven germ cell cancer (GCC). The primary outcomes were OS and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Data for 89 men with a total of 92 HIV-GCCs (2 synchronous GCCs and 1 metachronous bilateral GCC) were analyzed; among them were 64 seminomas (70%) and 28 nonseminomas (30%). The median age was 36 years, the median CD4 T-cell count at GCC diagnosis was 420 cells/¬ĶL, and 77% of the patients on cART had an HIV RNA load < 500 copies/mL. Stage I disease was found in 44 of 79 gonadal GCCs (56%). Among 45 cases with primary disseminated GCC, 78%, 18%, and 4% were assigned to the good-, intermediate-, and poor-prognosis groups, respectively, of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. Relapses occurred in 14 patients. Overall, 12 of 89 patients (13%) died. The causes of death were refractory GCC (n = 5), an AIDS-defining illness (n = 3), and other causes (n = 4). After a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the 5- and 10-year PFS rates were 81% and 73%, respectively, and the 5- and 10-year OS rates were 91% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: The 5- and 10-year PFS and OS rates of men with HIV-GCC were similar to those reported for men with HIV-negative GCC. Patients with HIV-GCC should be managed identically to HIV-negative patients. Lay Summary: Men living with HIV are at increased risk for germ cell cancer (GCC). Previous studies have shown that the survival of men with HIV-associated germ cell cancer (HIV-GCC) is poorer than the survival of their HIV-negative counterparts. This study examined the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of 89 men with HIV-GCC in the era of effective combination antiretroviral therapies. The long-term outcomes of men with HIV-GCC were similar to those reported for men with HIV-negative GCC. Patients with HIV-GCC should be managed identically to HIV-negative patients

    Epidemiology of Bladder Cancer in 2023: A Systematic Review of Risk Factors

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    CONTEXT Bladder cancer (BC) is common worldwide and poses a significant public health challenge. External risk factors and the wider exposome (totality of exposure from external and internal factors) contribute significantly to the development of BC. Therefore, establishing a clear understanding of these risk factors is the key to prevention. OBJECTIVE To perform an up-to-date systematic review of BC's epidemiology and external risk factors. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION Two reviewers (I.J. and S.O.) performed a systematic review using PubMed and Embase in January 2022 and updated it in September 2022. The search was restricted to 4 yr since our previous review in 2018. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS Our search identified 5177 articles and a total of 349 full-text manuscripts. GLOBOCAN data from 2020 revealed an incidence of 573 000 new BC cases and 213 000 deaths worldwide in 2020. The 5-yr prevalence worldwide in 2020 was 1 721 000. Tobacco smoking and occupational exposures (aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are the most substantial risk factors. In addition, correlative evidence exists for several risk factors, including specific dietary factors, imbalanced microbiome, gene-environment risk factor interactions, diesel exhaust emission exposure, and pelvic radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS We present a contemporary overview of the epidemiology of BC and the current evidence for BC risk factors. Smoking and specific occupational exposures are the most established risk factors. There is emerging evidence for specific dietary factors, imbalanced microbiome, gene-external risk factor interactions, diesel exhaust emission exposure, and pelvic radiotherapy. Further high-quality evidence is required to confirm initial findings and further understand cancer prevention. PATIENT SUMMARY Bladder cancer is common, and the most substantial risk factors are smoking and workplace exposure to suspected carcinogens. On-going research to identify avoidable risk factors could reduce the number of people who get bladder cancer

    Open Versus Robotic Cystectomy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis Comparing Survival Outcomes

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    Background: To assess the differential effect of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) versus open radical cystectomy (ORC) on survival outcomes in matched analyses performed on a large multicentric cohort. Methods: The study included 9757 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BCa) treated in a consecutive manner at each of 25 institutions. All patients underwent radical cystectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. To adjust for potential selection bias, propensity score matching 2:1 was performed with two ORC patients matched to one RARC patient. The propensity-matched cohort included 1374 patients. Multivariable competing risk analyses accounting for death of other causes, tested association of surgical technique with recurrence and cancer specific mortality (CSM), before and after propensity score matching. Results: Overall, 767 (7.8%) patients underwent RARC and 8990 (92.2%) ORC. The median follow-up before and after propensity matching was 81 and 102 months, respectively. In the overall population, the 3-year recurrence rates and CSM were 37% vs. 26% and 34% vs. 24% for ORC vs. RARC (all p values &gt; 0.1), respectively. On multivariable Cox regression analyses, RARC and ORC had similar recurrence and CSM rates before and after matching (all p values &gt; 0.1). Conclusions: Patients treated with RARC and ORC have similar survival outcomes. This data is helpful in consulting patients until long term survival outcomes of level one evidence is available

    Outcomes of relapsed clinical stage I versus de novo metastatic testicular cancer patients: an analysis of the IGCCCG Update database.

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    BACKGROUND Active surveillance after orchiectomy is the preferred management in clinical stage I (CSI) germ-cell tumours (GCT) associated with a 15 to 30% relapse rate. PATIENTS AND METHODS In the IGCCCG Update database, we compared the outcomes of gonadal disseminated GCT relapsing from initial CSI to outcomes of patients with de novo metastatic GCT. RESULTS A total of 1014 seminoma (Sem) [298 (29.4%) relapsed from CSI, 716 (70.6%) de novo] and 3103 non-seminoma (NSem) [626 (20.2%) relapsed from CSI, 2477 (79.8%) de novo] were identified. Among Sem, no statistically significant differences in PFS and OS were found between patients relapsing from CSI and de novo metastatic disease [5-year progression-free survival (5y-PFS) 87.6% versus 88.5%; 5-year overall survival (5y-OS) 93.2% versus 96.1%). Among NSem, PFS and OS were higher overall in relapsing CSI patients (5y-PFS 84.6% versus 80.0%; 5y-OS 93.3% versus 88.7%), but there were no differences within the same IGCCCG prognostic groups (HR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.89; 95% CI: 0.70-1.12). Relapses in the intermediate or poor prognostic groups occurred in 11/298 (4%) Sem and 112/626 (18%) NSem. CONCLUSION Relapsing CSI GCT patients expect similar survival compared to de novo metastatic patients of the same ICCCCG prognostic group. Intermediate and poor prognosis relapses from initial CSI expose patients to unnecessary toxicity from more intensive treatments

    FORT-1: Phase II/III Study of Rogaratinib Versus Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Selected Based on FGFR1/3 mRNA Expression

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    Purpose: Rogaratinib, an oral pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1-4) inhibitor, showed promising phase I efficacy and safety in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) with FGFR1-3 mRNA overexpression. We assessed rogaratinib efficacy and safety versus chemotherapy in patients with FGFR mRNA-positive advanced/metastatic UC previously treated with platinum chemotherapy. Methods: FORT-1 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03410693) was a phase II/III, randomized, open-label trial. Patients with FGFR1/3 mRNA-positive locally advanced or metastatic UC with ‚Č• 1 prior platinum-containing regimen were randomly assigned (1:1) to rogaratinib (800 mg orally twice daily, 3-week cycles; n = 87) or chemotherapy (docetaxel 75 mg/m2, paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, or vinflunine 320 mg/m2 intravenously once every 3 weeks; n = 88). The primary end point was overall survival, with objective response rate (ORR) analysis planned following phase II accrual. Because of comparable efficacy between treatments, enrollment was stopped before progression to phase III; a full interim analysis of phase II was completed. Results: ORRs were 20.7% (rogaratinib, 18/87; 95% CI, 12.7 to 30.7) and 19.3% (chemotherapy, 17/88; 95% CI, 11.7 to 29.1). Median overall survival was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.5 to not estimable) and 9.8 months (95% CI, 6.8 to not estimable; hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.72; P = .67). Grade 3/4 events occurred in 37 (43.0%)/4 (4.7%) patients and 32 (39.0%)/15 (18.3%), respectively. No rogaratinib-related deaths occurred. Exploratory analysis of patients with FGFR3 DNA alterations showed ORRs of 52.4% (11/21; 95% CI, 29.8 to 74.3) for rogaratinib and 26.7% (4/15; 95% CI, 7.8 to 55.1) for chemotherapy. Conclusion: To our knowledge, these are the first data to compare FGFR-directed therapy with chemotherapy in patients with FGFR-altered UC, showing comparable efficacy and manageable safety. Exploratory testing suggested FGFR3 DNA alterations in association with FGFR1/3 mRNA overexpression may be better predictors of rogaratinib response

    Multicenter Validation of Histopathologic Tumor Regression Grade After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Carcinoma

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    Response classification after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma is based on the TNM stage at radical cystectomy. We recently showed that histopathologic tumor regression grades (TRGs) add prognostic information to TNM. Our aim was to validate the prognostic significance of TRG in muscle-invasive bladder cancer in a multicenter setting. We enrolled 389 patients who underwent cisplatin-based chemotherapy before radical cystectomy in 8 centers between 2010 and 2016. Median follow-up was 2.2 years. TRG was determined in radical cystectomy specimens by local pathologists. Central pathology review was conducted in 20% of cases, which were randomly selected. The major response was defined as ‚ȧpT1N0. The remaining patients were grouped into partial responders (‚Č•ypT2N0-3 and TRG 2) and nonresponders (‚Č•ypT2N0-3 and TRG 3). TRG was successfully determined in all cases, and interobserver agreement in central pathology review was high (őļ=0.83). After combining TRG and TNM, 47%, 15%, and 38% of patients were major, partial, and nonresponders, respectively. Combination of TRG and TNM showed significant prognostic discrimination of overall survival (major responder: reference; partial responder: hazard ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.8]; nonresponder: hazard ratio 6.1 [95% confidence interval: 3.6-10.3]). This discrimination was superior compared with TNM staging alone, supported by 2 goodness-of-fit criteria (P=0.041). TRG is a simple, reproducible histopathologic measurement of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Integrating TRG with TNM staging resulted in significantly better prognostic stratification than TNM staging alone
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