54 research outputs found

    Mass Atrocities and their Prevention

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    Counting conservatively, and ignoring physical injuries and mental trauma, data show about 100 million mass atrocity-related deaths since 1900. Occurring in war and in peacetime, and of enormous scale, severity, and brutality, they are geographically widespread, occur with surprising frequency, and can be long-lasting in their adverse effects on economic and human development, wellbeing, and wealth. As such, they are a major economic concern. This article synthesizes very diverse and widely dispersed theoretical and empirical literatures, addressing two gaps: a “mass atrocities gap” in the economics literature and an “economics gap” in mass atrocities scholarship. Our goals are, first, for noneconomists to learn how economic inquiry contributes to understanding the causes and conduct of mass atrocities and possibly to their mitigation and prevention and, second, to survey and synthesize for economists a broad sweep of literatures to serve as a common platform on which to base further work in this field

    Economia de conflito e paz

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    We present an overview of the field of conflict economics. We begin by explaining important distinctions between standard textbook economics and conflict economics regarding assumptions, subject matter, and interrelations between economics and conflict. We then provide summaries of selected economic theories and empirical evidence that together help reveal important aspects of conflict – and peace – through an economics lens. Among the topics covered in the theoretical and empirical overview are why violence is sometimes chosen over peaceful approaches to address intergroup disputes, why it is “rational” for political leaders to sometimes mass kill civilians (and what can be done to prevent this), how social norms of committing harm against outgroups can propagate (or be stopped), why it can be difficult to develop laws and institutions to promote stable peace, and how third-party efforts to promote peace can sometimes make things worse. Lastly, we provide samples of data resources, working paper archives and journals, and readings consisting of major textbooks, handbooks, and edited books in the field of conflict economics.Apresentamos uma visão geral do campo da economia de conflito. Começamos explicando distinções importantes entre a economia padrão de livros didáticos e economia de conflito em relação a suposições, assunto e inter-relações entre economia e conflito. Em seguida, fornecemos resumos de teorias econômicas selecionadas e evidências empíricas que, juntos, ajudam a revelar aspectos importantes do conflito - e da paz - por meio de uma lente econômica. Entre os tópicos abordados na visão teórica e empíricau, por que é “racional” que líderes políticos às vezes matem civis em massa (e o que pode ser feito para evitar isso), como normas sociais de cometer danos contra grupos externos podem se propagar (ou ser interrompido), por que pode ser difícil desenvolver leis e instituições para promover a paz estável e como os esforços de terceiros para promover a paz podem às vezes piorar as coisas. Por último, fornecemos amostras de recursos de dados, arquivos e periódicos de trabalho, e leituras que consistem em grandes livros-texto, manuais e livros editados no campo da economia de conflito

    The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2024: phenotypes around the world.

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    The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is a widely used resource that comprehensively organizes and defines the phenotypic features of human disease, enabling computational inference and supporting genomic and phenotypic analyses through semantic similarity and machine learning algorithms. The HPO has widespread applications in clinical diagnostics and translational research, including genomic diagnostics, gene-disease discovery, and cohort analytics. In recent years, groups around the world have developed translations of the HPO from English to other languages, and the HPO browser has been internationalized, allowing users to view HPO term labels and in many cases synonyms and definitions in ten languages in addition to English. Since our last report, a total of 2239 new HPO terms and 49235 new HPO annotations were developed, many in collaboration with external groups in the fields of psychiatry, arthrogryposis, immunology and cardiology. The Medical Action Ontology (MAxO) is a new effort to model treatments and other measures taken for clinical management. Finally, the HPO consortium is contributing to efforts to integrate the HPO and the GA4GH Phenopacket Schema into electronic health records (EHRs) with the goal of more standardized and computable integration of rare disease data in EHRs

    The Eleventh and Twelfth Data Releases of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Final Data from SDSS-III

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    The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 deg2 of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include the measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 deg2 of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 deg2; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 of the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra. \ua9 2015. The American Astronomical Society

    Horizontal Economic Inequality and Mass Atrocity Risk: A Large-Sample Empirical Inquiry

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    Our research question is: Does inter-group horizontal economic inequality elevate state-perpetrated mass atrocity risk? Theoretical perspectives in genocide studies show how economic and other forms of discrimination against ethnic or religious groups can elevate the risk of government violence against them. Among the approximately five dozen large-sample empirical studies of mass atrocity risk, only a few consider the effects of economic discrimination. Moreover, no large-sample empirical studies, to the best of our knowledge, test hypotheses related to how inter-group horizontal economic inequalities (as distinct from vertical economic inequalities based on GINI coefficients or quantile income or wealth measures) affect mass atrocity risk. Drawing upon two data sources, we construct four horizontal economic inequality measures for groups within nations. The measures relate to access to economic resources in general and to electricity in particular. We then empirically test hypotheses related to horizontal economic inequality and mass atrocity risk for a sample of 175 nations spanning the period 1946–2019. We find modest support that horizontal economic inequality elevates mass atrocity risk broadly defined, but not genocide risk. We also find that vertical income inequality measures do not usually elevate mass atrocity or genocide risk

    The other virus: Covid-19 and violence against civilians

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