3,504 research outputs found

    The Effect of Consolidation on TBM Shield Loading in Water-Bearing Squeezing Ground

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    Jamming or overstressing of the shield due to ground pressure are potential problems for tunnel boring machine (TBM) tunnelling in squeezing ground. The risk of shield jamming depends essentially on the deformation rate of the ground in the vicinity of the working face. The time-dependency of the ground response to the excavation is associated with its rheological properties as well as with the transient consolidation process that takes place around the opening in the case of a low-permeability saturated ground. The present paper focuses on the second mechanism and investigates the interaction between the advancing shield, tunnel lining and consolidating ground by means of transient numerical analyses. For a given set of geotechnical conditions and a given TBM configuration, the load exerted by the ground upon the shield during TBM operation decreases with increasing gross advance rate. During a long break in operations, the ground pressure may increase significantly, thereby necessitating a higher thrust force to overcome shield skin friction and restart the TBM. It is interesting to note that a high advance rate reduces the risk of shield jamming not only during TBM advance, but is also favourable with respect to any subsequent long standstill

    The Interaction Between Shield, Ground and Tunnel Support in TBM Tunnelling Through Squeezing Ground

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    When planning a TBM drive in squeezing ground, the tunnelling engineer faces a complex problem involving a number of conflicting factors. In this respect, numerical analyses represent a helpful decision aid as they provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of key parameters. The present paper investigates the interaction between the shield, ground and tunnel support by means of computational analysis. Emphasis is placed on the boundary condition, which is applied to model the interface between the ground and the shield or tunnel support. The paper also discusses two cases, which illustrate different methodical approaches applied to the assessment of a TBM drive in squeezing ground. The first case history—the Uluabat Tunnel (Turkey)—mainly involves the investigation of TBM design measures aimed at reducing the risk of shield jamming. The second case history—the Faido Section of the Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland)—deals with different types of tunnel support installed behind a gripper TB

    Interpretation of Core Extrusion Measurements When Tunnelling Through Squeezing Ground

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    Squeezing intensity in tunnelling often varies over short distances, even where there is no change in the excavation method or lithology. Reliable predictions of the ground conditions ahead of the face are thus essential to avoid project setbacks. Such predictions would enable adjustments to be made during construction to the temporary support, to the excavation diameter and also to the final lining. The assessment of the behaviour of the core ahead of the face, as observed by means of extrusion measurements, provides some indications as to the mechanical characteristics of the ground. If the ground exhibits a moderate time-dependent behaviour and the effects of the support measures are taken into account, the prediction of convergence is feasible. If the ground behaviour is pronouncedly time-dependent, however, convergence predictions become very difficult, because core extrusion is governed by the short-term characteristics of the ground, which may be different from the long-term properties that govern final convergence. The case histories of the Gotthard Base Tunnel and of the Vasto tunnel show that there is a weak correlation between the axial extrusions and the convergences of the tunnel. By means of the case histories of the Tartaiguille tunnel and Raticosa tunnel, it is shown that to identify potentially weak zones on the basis of the extrusion measurements, careful processing of the monitoring data is essential: the analysis of the data has to take account of the effects of tunnel support and time, and has to eliminate errors caused by the monitoring proces

    Coral skeleton P/Ca proxy for seawater phosphate: Multi-colony calibration with a contemporaneous seawater phosphate record

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    A geochemical proxy for surface ocean nutrient concentrations recorded in coral skeleton could provide new insight into the connections between sub-seasonal to centennial scale nutrient dynamics, ocean physics, and primary production in the past. Previous work showed that coralline P/Ca, a novel seawater phosphate proxy, varies synchronously with annual upwelling-driven cycles in surface water phosphate concentration. However, paired contemporaneous seawater phosphate time-series data, needed for rigorous calibration of the new proxy, were lacking. Here we present further development of the P/Ca proxy in Porites lutea and Montastrea sp. corals, showing that skeletal P/Ca in colonies from geographically distinct oceanic nutrient regimes is a linear function of seawater phosphate (PO4 SW) concentration. Further, high-resolution P/Ca records in multiple colonies of Pavona gigantea and Porites lobata corals grown at the same upwelling location in the Gulf of Panama were strongly correlated to a contemporaneous time-series record of surface water PO4 SW at this site (r2 = 0.7–0.9). This study supports application of the following multi-colony calibration equations to down-core records from comparable upwelling sites, resulting in ±0.2 and ±0.1 lmol/kg uncertainties in PO4 SW reconstructions from P. lobata and P. gigantea, respectively.P/Ca Porites lobata (lmol/mol) = (21.1 ? 2.4)PO4 SW (lmol/kg) + (14.3 ? 3.8)P/Ca Pavona gigantea (lmol/mol) = (29.2 ? 1.4)PO4 SW (lmol/kg) + (33.4 ? 2.7)Inter-colony agreement in P/Ca response to PO4 SW was good (±5–12% about mean calibration slope), suggesting that species-specific calibration slopes can be applied to new coral P/Ca records to reconstruct past changes in surface ocean phosphate. However, offsets in the y-intercepts of calibration regressions among co-located individuals and taxa suggest that biologically-regulated “vital effects” and/or skeletal extension rate may also affect skeletal P incorporation. Quantification of the effect of skeletal extension rate on P/Ca could lead to corrected calibration equations and improved inter-colony P/Ca agreement. Nevertheless, the efficacy of the P/Ca proxy is thus supported by both broad scale correlation to mean surface water phosphate and regional calibration against documented local seawater phosphate variations

    Computation of the lambert W function in photovoltaic modeling

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    Recently, the Lambert W function has emerged as a valuable mathematical tool in photovoltaic (PV) modeling and other scientific fields. This increasing interest is because it can be used to reformulate the implicit equations of the single-diode PV model into explicit form. However, the computation of the Lambert W function itself is still not clear in the literature; some studies use the iterative built-in functions in MATLAB or other computational platforms, while others adopt their own approximation formulae. This paper takes a deeper look at the ways the Lambert W function is evaluated in PV models and carries out a comparative study to assess the most commonly used methods in terms of accuracy, computational cost, and application range. These alternatives are implemented in a modern computer and a typical microcontroller to evaluate their performance in both simulations and embedded applications. The analysis concludes that some series expansions are good options for PV modeling applications, requiring less execution time than the built-in MATLAB lambertw function and exhibiting negligible approximation error

    The CloudSME Simulation Platform and its Applications: A Generic Multi-cloud Platform for Developing and Executing Commercial Cloud-based Simulations

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    Simulation is used in industry to study a large variety of problems ranging from increasing the productivity of a manufacturing system to optimizing the design of a wind turbine. However, some simulation models can be computationally demanding and some simulation projects require time consuming experimentation. High performance computing infrastructures such as clusters can be used to speed up the execution of large models or multiple experiments but at a cost that is often too much for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Cloud computing presents an attractive, lower cost alternative. However, developing a cloud-based simulation application can again be costly for an SME due to training and development needs, especially if software vendors need to use resources of different heterogeneous clouds to avoid being locked-in to one particular cloud provider. In an attempt to reduce the cost of development of commercial cloud-based simulations, the CloudSME Simulation Platform (CSSP) has been developed as a generic approach that combines an AppCenter with the workflow of the WS-PGRADE/gUSE science gateway framework and the multi-cloud-based capabilities of the CloudBroker Platform. The paper presents the CSSP and two representative case studies from distinctly different areas that illustrate how commercial multi-cloud-based simulations can be created