53,815 research outputs found

    Analysis and design of transonic airfoils using streamwise coordinates

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    A new approach is developed for analysis and design of transonic airfoils. A set of full potential equivalent equations in von Mises coordinates is formulated from the Euler equations under the irrotationality and isentropic assumptions. This set is composed of a main equation for the main variable, y, and a secondary equations for the secondary variable, R. The main equation is solved by type dependent differencing combined with a shock point operator. The secondary equation is solved by marching from a non-characteristic boundary. Sample computations on NACA 0012 and biconvex airfoils show that, for the analysis problem, the present approach achieves good agreement with experimental C sub p distributions. For the design problem, the approach leads to a simple numerical algorithm in which the airfoil contour is calculated as part of the flow field solution

    Small radii of neutron stars as an indication of novel in-medium effects

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    At present, neutron star radii from both observations and model predictions remain very uncertain. Whereas different models can predict a wide range of neutron star radii, it is not possible for most models to predict radii that are smaller than about 10 km, thus if such small radii are established in the future they will be very difficult to reconcile with model estimates. By invoking a new term in the equation of state that enhances the energy density, but leaves the pressure unchanged we simulate the current uncertainty in the neutron star radii. This new term can be possibly due to the exchange of the weakly interacting light U-boson with appropriate in-medium parameters, which does not compromise the success of the conventional nuclear models. The validity of this new scheme will be tested eventually by more precise measurements of neutron star radii.Comment: EPJA (2015) in pres

    Probing the high-density behavior of symmetry energy with gravitational waves

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    Gravitational wave (GW) astronomy opens up an entirely new window on the Universe to probe the equations of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter. With the advent of next generation GW detectors, measuring the gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron star systems, mountains on rotating neutron stars, and stellar oscillation modes may become possible in the near future. Using a set of model EOSs satisfying the latest constraints from terrestrial nuclear experiments, state of the art nuclear many-body calculations of the pure neutron matter EOS, and astrophysical observations consistently, we study various GW signatures of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy, which is considered among the most uncertain properties of dense neutron-rich nucleonic matter. In particular, we find the tidal polarizability of neutron stars, potentially measurable in binary systems just prior to merger, is more sensitive to the high density component of the nuclear symmetry energy than the symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density. We also find that the upper limit on the GW strain amplitude from elliptically deformed stars is very sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. This suggests that future developments in modeling of the neutron star crust, and direct gravitational wave signals from accreting binaries will provide a wealth of information on the EOS of neutron-rich matter. We also review the sensitivity of the rr-mode instability window to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Whereas models with larger values of the density slope of the symmetry energy at saturation seem to be disfavored by the current observational data, within a simple rr-mode model, we point out that a subsequent softer behavior of the symmetry energy at high densities (hinted at by recent observational interpretations) could rule them in.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures, 3 tables; submitted to EPJA Special Volume on Nuclear Symmetry Energ

    Effective Viscous Damping Enables Morphological Computation in Legged Locomotion

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    Muscle models and animal observations suggest that physical damping is beneficial for stabilization. Still, only a few implementations of mechanical damping exist in compliant robotic legged locomotion. It remains unclear how physical damping can be exploited for locomotion tasks, while its advantages as sensor-free, adaptive force- and negative work-producing actuators are promising. In a simplified numerical leg model, we studied the energy dissipation from viscous and Coulomb damping during vertical drops with ground-level perturbations. A parallel spring-damper is engaged between touch-down and mid-stance, and its damper auto-disengages during mid-stance and takeoff. Our simulations indicate that an adjustable and viscous damper is desired. In hardware we explored effective viscous damping and adjustability and quantified the dissipated energy. We tested two mechanical, leg-mounted damping mechanisms; a commercial hydraulic damper, and a custom-made pneumatic damper. The pneumatic damper exploits a rolling diaphragm with an adjustable orifice, minimizing Coulomb damping effects while permitting adjustable resistance. Experimental results show that the leg-mounted, hydraulic damper exhibits the most effective viscous damping. Adjusting the orifice setting did not result in substantial changes of dissipated energy per drop, unlike adjusting damping parameters in the numerical model. Consequently, we also emphasize the importance of characterizing physical dampers during real legged impacts to evaluate their effectiveness for compliant legged locomotion
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