218 research outputs found

    Laparoscopic Nephron-Sparing Calycectomy for Treating Fraley's Syndrome

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    Background/Aims/Objectives: Various nephron-sparing approaches were described as part of surgical management for Fraley's syndrome, a rare anatomic variant of the renal vascular anatomy that compresses the upper pole infundibulum resulting in an upper calyceal obstruction and dilatation, with symptoms of flank pain and hematuria. To date, descriptions of minimally invasive correction techniques are anecdotal. METHODS: A retroperitoneal pure laparoscopic approach using the nephron-sparing technique was chosen in the presented case. RESULTS: In this report, we demonstrated that if laparoscopic calycectomy is performed without clamping of renal branches, parenchymal ischemia can be completely avoided. Additionally, the preservation of renal tissue surrounding the calyx enables the preservation of the intrasinusal segmental arteries flow, thereby avoiding their accidental closure by hemostatic sutures. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Laparoscopic Nephron-Sparing Calycectomy is a safe and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of Fraley's syndrome. Consistent laparoscopic experience is required before embarking on this kind of surgery

    Artificial intelligence for target prostate biopsy outcomes prediction the potential application of fuzzy logic

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    Background: In current precision prostate cancer (PCa) surgery era the identification of the best patients candidate for prostate biopsy still remains an open issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the prostate target biopsy (TB) outcomes could be predicted by using artificial intelligence approach based on a set of clinical pre-biopsy. Methods: Pre-biopsy characteristics in terms of PSA, PSA density, digital rectal examination (DRE), previous prostate biopsies, number of suspicious lesions at mp-MRI, lesion volume, lesion location, and Pi-Rads score were extracted from our prospectively maintained TB database from March 2014 to December 2019. Our approach is based on Fuzzy logic and associative rules mining, with the aim to predict TB outcomes. Results: A total of 1448 patients were included. Using the Frequent-Pattern growth algorithm we extracted 875 rules and used to build the fuzzy classifier. 963 subjects were classified whereas for the remaining 484 subjects were not classified since no rules matched with their input variables. Analyzing the classified subjects we obtained a specificity of 59.2% and sensitivity of 90.8% with a negative and the positive predictive values of 81.3% and 76.6%, respectively. In particular, focusing on ISUP ≥ 3 PCa, our model is able to correctly predict the biopsy outcomes in 98.1% of the cases. Conclusions: In this study we demonstrated that the possibility to look at several pre-biopsy variables simultaneously with artificial intelligence algorithms can improve the prediction of TB outcomes, outclassing the performance of PSA, its derivates and MRI alone

    Machine-Learning-Based Tool to Predict Target Prostate Biopsy Outcomes: An Internal Validation Study

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    Abstract: The aim of this study is to present a personalized predictive model (PPM) with a machine learning (ML) system that is able to identify and classify patients with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) following mpMRI. We extracted all the patients who underwent fusion biopsy (FB) from March 2014 to December 2019, while patients from August 2020 to April 2021 were included as a validation set. The proposed system was based on the following four ML methods: a fuzzy inference system (FIS), the support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), and self-organizing maps (SOMs). Then, a system based on fuzzy logic (FL) + SVM was compared with logistic regression (LR) and standard diagnostic tools. A total of 1448 patients were included in the training set, while 181 patients were included in the validation set. The area under the curve (AUC) of the proposed FIS + SVM model was comparable with the LR model but outperformed the other diagnostic tools. The FIS + SVM model demonstrated the best performance, in terms of negative predictive value (NPV), on the training set (78.5%); moreover, it outperformed the LR in terms of specificity (92.1% vs. 83%). Considering the validation set, our model outperformed the other methods in terms of NPV (60.7%), sensitivity (90.8%), and accuracy (69.1%). In conclusion, we successfully developed and validated a PPM tool using the FIS + SVM model to calculate the probability of PCa prior to a prostate FB, avoiding useless ones in 15% of the cases

    Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Prostate Cancer Patient Management-Current Trends and Future Perspectives

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    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of computer science that aims to build smart devices performing tasks that currently require human intelligence. Through machine learning (ML), the deep learning (DL) model is teaching computers to learn by example, something that human beings are doing naturally. AI is revolutionizing healthcare. Digital pathology is becoming highly assisted by AI to help researchers in analyzing larger data sets and providing faster and more accurate diagnoses of prostate cancer lesions. When applied to diagnostic imaging, AI has shown excellent accuracy in the detection of prostate lesions as well as in the prediction of patient outcomes in terms of survival and treatment response. The enormous quantity of data coming from the prostate tumor genome requires fast, reliable and accurate computing power provided by machine learning algorithms. Radiotherapy is an essential part of the treatment of prostate cancer and it is often difficult to predict its toxicity for the patients. Artificial intelligence could have a future potential role in predicting how a patient will react to the therapy side effects. These technologies could provide doctors with better insights on how to plan radiotherapy treatment. The extension of the capabilities of surgical robots for more autonomous tasks will allow them to use information from the surgical field, recognize issues and implement the proper actions without the need for human intervention
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