443 research outputs found

    Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Echinodorus macrophyllus (chapéu-de-couro) extracts

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    Echinodorus macrophyllus, commonly known as chapĂ©u-de-couro, is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatic diseases. In this work, we used short-term bacterial assays based on the induction of SOS functions to examine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of an aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus leaves. Whole extract and an ethyl acetate fraction showed similar genotoxicity and caused an ~70-fold increase in lysogenic induction. The extract also gave a positive result in the SOS chromotest with an increase of 12-fold in ÎČ-Galactosidase enzymatic units. There was a strong trend towards base substitutions and frameshifts at purine sites in the mutations induced by the extract in Escherichia coli (CC103 and CC104 strains) and Salmonella typhimurium test strains (22-fold increase in histidine revertants in TA98 strain). Since reactive oxygen species may be implicated in aging process and in degenerative diseases, we used antioxidant compounds as catalase, thiourea and dipyridyl in the lysogenic induction test. All this compounds were able to reduce the induction factor observed in the treatment with chapĂ©u-de-couro, thus suggesting that the genotoxicity and mutagenicity were attributable to the production of reactive oxygen species that targeted DNA purines

    Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

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    The Calorie (kcal) of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet) defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1°C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie) and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal). The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context

    Trypacidin, a Spore-Borne Toxin from Aspergillus fumigatus, Is Cytotoxic to Lung Cells

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    Inhalation of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia can cause severe aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people. A. fumigatus produces a large number of secondary metabolites, some of which are airborne by conidia and whose toxicity to the respiratory tract has not been investigated. We found that spores of A. fumigatus contain five main compounds, tryptoquivaline F, fumiquinazoline C, questin, monomethylsulochrin and trypacidin. Fractionation of culture extracts using RP-HPLC and LC-MS showed that samples containing questin, monomethylsulochrin and trypacidin were toxic to the human A549 lung cell line. These compounds were purified and their structure verified using NMR in order to compare their toxicity against A549 cells. Trypacidin was the most toxic, decreasing cell viability and triggering cell lysis, both effects occurring at an IC50 close to 7 ”M. Trypacidin toxicity was also observed in the same concentration range on human bronchial epithelial cells. In the first hour of exposure, trypacidin initiates the intracellular formation of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This oxidative stress triggers necrotic cell death in the following 24 h. The apoptosis pathway, moreover, was not involved in the cell death process as trypacidin did not induce apoptotic bodies or a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. This is the first time that the toxicity of trypacidin to lung cells has been reported

    Acute reduction of serum 8-iso-PGF2-alpha and advanced oxidation protein products in vivo by a polyphenol-rich beverage; a pilot clinical study with phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant characterization

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Measuring the effects of the acute intake of natural products on human biomarker concentrations, such as those related to oxidation and inflammation, can be an advantageous strategy for early clinical research on an ingredient or product.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>31 total healthy subjects were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, acute pilot study with post-hoc subgroup analysis on 20 of the subjects. The study examined the effects of a single dose of a polyphenol-rich beverage (PRB), commercially marketed as "SoZo<sup>Âź</sup>", on serum anti-inflammatory and antioxidant markers. In addition, phytochemical analyses of PRB, and <it>in vitro </it>antioxidant capacity were also performed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>At 1 hour post-intake, serum values for 8-iso-PGF2-alpha and advanced oxidation protein products decreased significantly by 40% and 39%, respectively. Additionally, there was a trend toward decreased C-reactive protein, and increased nitric oxide levels. Both placebo and PRB treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) compared to baseline; PRB showed a higher percent change (55-75% versus 23-74% in placebo group), but the two groups did not differ significantly from each other.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>PRB produced statistically significant changes in several blood biomarkers related to antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies are justified to verify results and test for cumulative effects of repeated intakes of PRB. The study demonstrates the potential utility of acute biomarker measurements for evaluating antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of natural products.</p

    Male, National, and Religious Collective Narcissism Predict Sexism

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    Results of three cross-sectional studies indicate that sexism in Poland is associated with collective narcissism—a belief that one’s own group’s (the in-group’s) exaggerated exceptionality is not sufficiently recognized by others—with reference to three social identities: male, religious, and national. In Study 1 (n = 329), male collective narcissism was associated with sexism. This relationship was sequentially mediated by precarious manhood and traditional gender beliefs. In Study 2 (n = 877), Catholic collective narcissism predicted tolerance of violence against women (among men and women) over and above religious fundamentalism and in contrast to intrinsic religiosity. In Study 3 (n = 1070), national collective narcissism was associated with hostile sexism among men and women and with benevolent sexism more strongly among women than among men. In contrast, national in-group satisfaction—a belief that the nation is of a high value—predicted rejection of benevolent and hostile sexism among women but was positively associated with hostile and benevolent sexism among men. Among men and women collective narcissism was associated with tolerance of domestic violence against women, whereas national in-group satisfaction was associated with rejection of violence against women

    Production of ϒ(nS) mesons in Pb + Pb and pp collisions at 5.02 TeV

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    A measurement of the production of vector bottomonium states, ϒ(1S), ϒ(2S), and ϒ(3S), in Pb + Pb and pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV is presented. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of 1.38 nb-1 of Pb + Pb data collected in 2018, 0.44 nb-1 of Pb + Pb data collected in 2015, and 0.26 fb-1 of pp data collected in 2017 by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the dimuon decay channel for transverse momentum pΌΌT < 30 GeV, absolute rapidity |yΌΌ| < 1.5, and Pb + Pb event centrality 0-80%. The production rates of the three bottomonium states in Pb + Pb collisions are compared with those in pp collisions to extract the nuclear modification factors as functions of event centrality, pΌΌT, and |yΌΌ|. In addition, the suppression of the excited states relative to the ground state is studied. The results are compared with theoretical model calculations

    Search for new phenomena in multi-body invariant masses in events with at least one isolated lepton and two jets using √s = 13 TeV proton–proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector

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    A search for resonances in events with at least one isolated lepton (e or ÎŒ) and two jets is performed using 139 fb −1 of s = 13 TeV proton–proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Deviations from a smoothly falling background hypothesis are tested in three- and four-body invariant mass distributions constructed from leptons and jets, including jets identified as originating from bottom quarks. Model-independent limits on generic resonances characterised by cascade decays of particles leading to multiple jets and leptons in the final state are presented. The limits are calculated using Gaussian shapes with different widths for the invariant masses. The multi-body invariant masses are also used to set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross-section times branching ratios for the production and subsequent decay of resonances predicted by several new physics scenarios. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Measurement of the total cross section and ρ -parameter from elastic scattering in pp collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    In a special run of the LHC with ÎČ⋆= 2.5 km, proton–proton elastic-scattering events were recorded at s=13 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 340ÎŒb-1 using the ALFA subdetector of ATLAS in 2016. The elastic cross section was measured differentially in the Mandelstam t variable in the range from - t= 2.5 · 10 - 4 GeV 2 to - t= 0.46 GeV 2 using 6.9 million elastic-scattering candidates. This paper presents measurements of the total cross section σtot , parameters of the nuclear slope, and the ρ -parameter defined as the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic-scattering amplitude in the limit t→ 0 . These parameters are determined from a fit to the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem and different parameterizations of the t-dependence. The results for σtot and ρ are σtot(pp→X)=104.7±1.1mb,ρ=0.098±0.011. The uncertainty in σtot is dominated by the luminosity measurement, and in ρ by imperfect knowledge of the detector alignment and by modelling of the nuclear amplitude

    Measurement of the Higgs boson mass in the H → Z Z∗ → 4 decay channel using 139 fb−1 of √s = 13 TeV pp collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC

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    The mass of the Higgs boson is measured in the H→ZZ⁎→4ℓ decay channel. The analysis uses proton–proton collision data from the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector between 2015 and 2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb−1. The measured value of the Higgs boson mass is 124.99±0.18(stat.)±0.04(syst.) GeV. In final states with muons, this measurement benefits from an improved momentum-scale calibration relative to that adopted in previous publications. The measurement also employs an analytic model that takes into account the invariant-mass resolution of the four-lepton system on a per-event basis and the output of a deep neural network discriminating signal from background events. This measurement is combined with the corresponding measurement using 7 and 8 TeV pp collision data, resulting in a Higgs boson mass of 124.94±0.17(stat.)±0.03(syst.) GeV

    Cross-section measurements for the production of a Z boson in association with high-transverse-momentum jets in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Cross-section measurements for a Z boson produced in association with high-transverse-momentum jets (p T ≄ 100 GeV) and decaying into a charged-lepton pair (e + e − , ÎŒ + ÎŒ −) are presented. The measurements are performed using proton–proton collisions at s = 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb −1 collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Measurements of angular correlations between the Z boson and the closest jet are performed in events with at least one jet with p T ≄ 500 GeV. Event topologies of particular interest are the collinear emission of a Z boson in dijet events and a boosted Z boson recoiling against a jet. Fiducial cross sections are compared with state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The data are found to agree with next-to-next-to-leading-order predictions by NNLOjet and with the next-to-leading-order multi-leg generators MadGraph5_aMC@NLO and Sherpa. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
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