12,534 research outputs found

    Sasang Constitution as a Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Sasang Constitutional Medicine, which is a branch of traditional Korean medicine, states that medications for diabetes should be individualized according to the patient's individual constitution. However, the effect of constitution on diabetes has not been evaluated to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if constitution is an independent risk factor for diabetes by comparing the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of the disease according to constitution. The medical records of 1443 adults who had been examined and classified based on their constitution at Kyung Hee University Hospital in Seoul, Korea were reviewed. A chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the prevalence of diabetes according to constitution, and multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the ORs for diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes differed significantly according to constitution (χ2 = 36.20, df = 2, P < 0.001). Specifically, the prevalence of the disease was higher in Tae-eumin (11.4%) individuals than in Soyangin (5.0%) or Soeumin (1.7%) individuals. In addition, multiple logistic regression revealed that Tae-eumin individuals had a greater risk for diabetes than Soeumin individuals. When compared to Soeumin individuals, the adjusted ORs were 2.01 (95% CI 0.77–5.26) for Soyangin individuals and 3.96 (95% CI 1.48–10.60) for Tae-eumin individuals. These results show that constitution has a significant and independent association with diabetes, which suggests that constitution is an independent risk factor for diabetes that should be considered when attempting to detect and prevent the disease

    The glucose triad and its role in comprehensive glycaemic control: current status, future management

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    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes across the world has been described as a global pandemic. Despite significant efforts to limit both the increase in the number of cases and the long-term impact on morbidity and mortality, the total number of people with diabetes is projected to continue to rise and most patients still fail to achieve adequate glycaemic control. Optimal management of type 2 diabetes requires an understanding of the relationships between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose (the glucose triad), and how these change during development and progression of the disease. Early and sustained control of glycaemia remains important in the management of type 2 diabetes. The contribution of postprandial glucose levels to overall glycaemic control and the role of postprandial glucose targets in disease management are currently debated. However, many patients do not reach HbA1C targets set according to published guidelines. As recent data suggest, if driving HbA1C down to lower target levels is not the answer, what other factors involved in glucose homeostasis can or should be targeted? Has the time come to change the treatment paradigm to include awareness of the components of the glucose triad, the existence of glucose variability and their potential influence on the choice of pharmacological treatment? It is becomingly increasingly clear that physicians are likely to have to consider plasma glucose levels both after the overnight fast and after meals as well as the variability of glucose levels, in order to achieve optimal glycaemic control for each patient. When antidiabetic therapy is initiated, physicians may need to consider selection of agents that target both fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia

    Postprandial blood glucose

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    "This Girl is on Fire": Sensemaking in an Online Health Community for Vulvodynia

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    Online health communities (OHCs) allow people living with a shared diagnosis or medical condition to connect with peers for social support and advice. OHCs have been well studied in conditions like diabetes and cancer, but less is known about their role in enigmatic diseases with unknown or complex causal mechanisms. In this paper, we study one such condition: Vulvodynia, a chronic pain syndrome of the vulvar region. Through observations of and interviews with members of a vulvodynia Facebook group, we found that while the interaction types are broadly similar to those found in other OHCs, the women spent more time seeking basic information and building individualized management plans. They also encounter significant emotional and interpersonal challenges, which they discuss with each other. We use this study to extend the field's understanding of OHCs, and to propose implications for the design of self-tracking tools to support sensemaking in enigmatic conditions

    Postprandial blood glucose response to a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated with insulin lispro mix 50 or human insulin mix 50

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    Aim: To compare the 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) excursion following a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated twice daily with human insulin mix 50 vs. insulin lispro mix 50 (LM50). Methods: This was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, crossover comparison of two insulin treatments for two 12-week treatment periods in 120 Chinese patients. One- and 2-h PPBG and excursion values were obtained following a standardised test meal. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dose, rate of hypoglycaemia and safety data were obtained. A crossover analysis using SAS Proc MIXED was employed. Results: Mean 2-h PPBG excursion decreased from 6.32 +/- 3.07 mmol/l at baseline to 3.47 +/- 2.97 mmol/l at end-point in the LM50 group, and from 6.31 +/- 2.88 at baseline to 5.02 +/- 3.32 mmol/l at end-point in the human insulin mix 50 group (p &lt; 0.001). Two-hour PPBG (p = 0.004) and 1-h PPBG excursion (p &lt; 0.001) were significantly lower with LM50 as compared with human insulin mix 50. Both treatment groups were equivalent for HbA1c control, 1-h PPBG and insulin dose requirements. Mean FBG was higher with LM50 than with human insulin mix 50 (p = 0.023). The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and hypoglycaemia rate per 30 days were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions: Insulin lispro mix 50 provided better postprandial glycaemic control compared with human insulin mix 50 while providing the convenience of injecting immediately before meals. Both treatments were generally well tolerated by all randomly assigned patients.Medicine, General &amp; InternalPharmacology &amp; PharmacySCI(E)PubMed5ARTICLE91344-13516

    Barriers to following dietary recommendations in Type 2 diabetes

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    Aims  To evaluate barriers to following dietary recommendations in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods  We conducted focus groups and surveys in urban and suburban VA and academic medical centres. For the written survey, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 446 patients with diabetes. For the focus groups, six groups of patients with diabetes (three urban, three suburban) were conducted, with 6–12 participants in each group. The focus groups explored barriers across various types of diabetes self-management; we extracted all comments relevant to barriers that limited patients’ ability to follow a recommended diet. Results  The written survey measured the burden of diabetes therapies (on a seven-point rating scale). Moderate diet was seen as a greater burden than oral agents (median 1 vs. 0, P  = 0.001), but less of a burden than insulin (median 1 vs. 4, P  < 0.001). A strict diet aimed at weight loss was rated as being similarly burdensome to insulin (median 4 vs. 4, P  = NS). Despite this, self-reported adherence was much higher for both pills and insulin than it was for a moderate diet. In the focus groups, the most commonly identified barrier was the cost (14/14 reviews), followed by small portion sizes (13/14 reviews), support and family issues (13/14 reviews), and quality of life and lifestyle issues (12/14 reviews). Patients in the urban site, who were predominantly African-American, noted greater difficulties communicating with their provider about diet and social circumstances, and also that the rigid schedule of a diabetes diet was problematic. Conclusions  Barriers to adherence to dietary therapies are numerous, but some, such as cost, and in the urban setting, communication with providers, are potentially remediable. Interventions aimed at improving patients’ ability to modify their diet need to specifically address these areas. Furthermore, treatment guidelines need to consider patients’ preferences and barriers when setting goals for treatment. Diabet. Med. (2004)Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/73213/1/j.1464-5491.2004.01342.x.pd