2,142 research outputs found

    Narcolepsy

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    Position paper on the use of mandibular advancement devices in adults with sleep-related breathing disorders: A position paper of the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft Zahnaerztliche Schlafmedizin, DGZS)

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    Custom-made mandibular advancement devices are an effective treatment option for snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Evidence-based data indicates their efficacy, and international sleep societies recommend oral appliance (OA) therapy for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The following position paper by the German Society of Dental Sleep Medicine (DGZS) is to guide the interdisciplinary team (sleep physician and sleep disorder dentist) in detail when to prescribe oral appliances. This position paper supports the responsible use of OA as an effective treatment option for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. The paper advises of proper indication regarding OSA severity, body mass index (BMI), and dentition. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary approach of oral appliance therapy and suggests treatment under the guidance of dentists trained in dental sleep medicine

    Altered perception of facially expressed tiredness in insomnia

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    The present study compared normal sleepers and individuals displaying insomnia symptoms in their ratings for the expression intensity of tiredness and alertness whilst observing tired and neutral faces. Fifty-six normal sleepers and 58 individuals with insomnia symptoms observed 98 facial photographs (49 neutral, 49 tired). Using a visual analogue scale, participants were required to rate the extent to which each face appeared as tired and alert. Tired faces were created by manipulating neutral photographs to include previously identified facial tiredness cues. All participants rated sleep-related faces as more tired and less alert relative to neutral photographs. A significant Group‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČFace‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČRating interaction demonstrated that, compared with normal sleepers, the insomnia symptoms group showed lower ratings for the expression of tiredness, but not alertness, whilst observing the tired faces. The findings suggest that the presence of insomnia symptoms is associated with reduced ratings of expression intensity for sleep-related facial photographs displaying tiredness. These outcomes add to the body of literature on how facial cues of tiredness are perceived by those with insomnia symptoms. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between insomnia symptoms and reduced perceptions of facially expressed tiredness

    Misdiagnosis of narcolepsy

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    BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic primary sleep disorder, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep dysfunction with or without cataplexy. Narcolepsy is uncommon, with a low prevalence rate which makes it difficult to diagnose definitively without a complex series of tests and a detailed history. The aim of this study was to review patients referred to a tertiary sleep centre who had been labelled with a diagnosis of narcolepsy prior to referral in order to assess if the diagnosis was accurate, and if not, to determine the cause of diagnostic misattribution. METHODS: All patients seen at a sleep centre from 2007‚Äď2013 (n¬†=¬†551) who underwent detailed objective testing including an MSLT PSG, as well as wearing an actigraphy watch and completing a sleep diary for 2¬†weeks, were assessed for a pre-referral and final diagnosis of narcolepsy. RESULTS: Of the 41 directly referred patients with a diagnostic label of narcolepsy, 19 (46¬†%) were subsequently confirmed to have narcolepsy on objective testing and assessment by a sleep physician using ICSD-2 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of narcolepsy was incorrectly attributed to almost 50¬†% of patients labelled with a diagnosis of narcolepsy who were referred for further opinion by a variety of specialists and generalists. Accurate diagnosis of narcolepsy is critical for many reasons, such as the impact it has on quality of life, driving, employment, insurance and pregnancy in women as well as medication management

    Sleep-Related Falling Out of Bed in Parkinson's Disease

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    Background and purposeSleep-related falling out of bed (SFOB), with its potential for significant injury, has not been a strong focus of investigation in Parkinson's disease (PD) to date. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of PD patients with and without SFOB.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive PD patients, who completed an REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire (RBDSQ), questionnaires to assess for RBD clinical mimickers and questions about SFOB and resulting injuries. Determination of high risk for RBD was based on an RBDSQ score of 5 or greater.ResultsThirteen patients reported history of SFOB (26%). Visual hallucinations, sleep-related injury, quetiapine and amantadine use were more common in those patients reporting SFOB. Twenty-two patients (44%) fulfilled criteria for high risk for RBD, 12 of which (55%) reported SFOB. Five patients reported injuries related to SFOB. SFOB patients had higher RBDSQ scores than non-SFOB patients (8.2¬Ī3.0 vs. 3.3¬Ī2.0, p<0.01). For every one unit increase in RBDSQ score, the likelihood of SFOB increased two-fold (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.2, p<0.003).ConclusionsSFOB may be a clinical marker of RBD in PD and should prompt confirmatory polysomnography and pharmacologic treatment to avoid imminent injury. Larger prospective studies are needed to identify risk factors for initial and recurrent SFOB in PD

    Exploding Head Syndrome: Clinical Features, Theories about Etiology, and Prevention Strategies in a Large International Sample

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    OBJECTIVE: Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a benign sensory parasomnia characterized by the perception of loud noises or a sense of explosion in the head. Few studies have assessed clinical features and little is known about demographic differences or prevention strategies. PATIENTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3286 individuals with and 2954 without lifetime EHS episodes was conducted via online questionnaires. RESULTS: Those with EHS had shorter sleep durations, longer sleep onset latencies, poorer sleep quality, and less sleep efficiency, but effect sizes for these differences were small. Females were slightly more likely than males to endorse EHS. 44.4% of individuals with EHS experienced significant fear during episodes, but fewer reported clinically significant distress (25.0%) or interference (10.1%) as a result of EHS. Most sufferers believed it to be a brain-based phenomenon, but a small minority endorsed anomalous causes. Five prevention strategies with >50% reported effectiveness were identified. CONCLUSIONS: EHS was assessed in the largest sample to date. Though associated with clinical impacts, no empirically supported interventions yet exist. The five prevention strategies may prove useful for treatment development

    Periodic limb movements in sleep are associated with stroke and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with renal failure

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    Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) is prevalent among dialysed patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of this disease in a sample of transplanted and waiting-list haemodialysed patients. One hundred transplanted and 50 waiting- list patients underwent polysomnography. Moderate and severe diseases were defined as periodic limb movements in sleep index (PLMSI) higher than 15 and 25 events h(-1) , respectively. The 10-year coronary heart disease risk was estimated for all patients using the Framingham Score. Moreover, the 10-year estimated risk of stroke was calculated according to the modified version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. PLMS was present in 27% of the transplanted and 42% of the waiting- list group (P = 0.094); the proportion of severe disease was twice as high in waiting-list versus transplanted patients (32 versus 16%, P = 0.024). Patients with severe disease had a higher 10-year estimated risk of stroke in the transplanted group [10 (7-17) versus 5 (4-10); P = 0.002] and a higher 10- year coronary heart disease risk in both the transplanted [18 (8-22) versus 7 (4-14); P = 0.002], and the waiting-list groups [11 (5-18) versus 4 (1-9); P = 0.032]. In multivariable linear regression models the PLMSI was associated independently with the Framingham cardiovascular and cerebrovascular scores after adjusting for important covariables. Higher PLMSI is an independent predictor of higher cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk score in patients with chronic kidney disease. Severe PLMS is less frequent in kidney transplant recipients compared to waiting-list dialysis patients
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