32 research outputs found

    The diet of young eaters: a specific requirement requiring a reorganisation of family eating habits

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    International audienceThe diet of young eaters: a specific requirement requiring a reorganisation of family eating habitsL’alimentation des jeunes mangeurs : un besoin spĂ©cifique entrainant une rĂ©organisation alimentaire familialeWe decided to take a look at what children eat by focusing on some analyses and results from a research programme on the diet of very young eaters, i.e. children aged between 0 and 3 (Dupuy and Rochedy, 2015). By analysing the underside of domestic and parental production in respect of the diet of small children, the report will focus on the supply journey, storage methods, culinary techniques, table manners and post-meal practices, describing them in terms of different life stages and also in respect of the development and socialisation of children. From a sociological point of view, how can we analyse the parental practices related to the act of feeding alongside those related to the construction of the list, or even the register, of what young children eat as a result of diversification? The various aspects of the work of parents have been investigated (Vandelac et al., 1985): the material work (shopping, preparing food and feeding the child/children but also the rest of the family, etc.), the cognitive work (thinking about what to eat and how to prepare it and anticipating the shopping that needs to be done, etc.) and the sentimental and relational work (family cohesion, being together, conversations/discussions around the child's diet, pleasure, conviviality and the child's well-being, etc.). It then becomes possible to question the evidence of this social fact: studying the work of parents in respect of the diet of young eaters in order to understand the changes, the disparities and the inequalities as well as the construction of the dietary practices of young eaters and the impact of parental work on their socialisation. This line of questioning, which is situated at the crossroads of the sociology of food, childhood, the family, health and gender relations, demands that particular attention be given to the juxtaposition and the combination of several dimensions. Firstly, the social construction of childhood (and early childhood) with the current place of the child and the small child, of children and small children, of childhood and early childhood, in the family, in culture and, more widely, the society under examination, which creates understanding of the socialisation, and particularly the multiple facets (horizontal, vertical and inverse) of food socialisation and the underlying inter/intra-generational relationships. Furthermore, the life stages and diet of the child are taken into account in the process of constructing the list of food (construction of likes and dislikes, rejections, preferences, neophobia, pleasure and emotion) alongside the prevalent childcare norms today. Finally, the issue of domestic and parental work (mental and physical tasks and the division and inequality of work within the family) and the "care" aspect, i.e. "thinking about others", which includes tangible and intangible practices, such as "emotional" components, provide an insight into the complexity of this task.Several points concerning the study are worthy of particular attention. The first relates to the fact that it takes into account a change in the child's diet from birth with milk given to begin with (dietary diversification with the first purĂ©e and then textured food with the introduction of lumps) until the child is integrated into family mealtimes, both physically and symbolically, by being served the same food as the rest of the family. These changes require ongoing readjustments in the feeding environment. Furthermore, this study takes a look at the practices and representations of the young child's diet from the point of view of the feeding environment while also considering what the child does with what he receives. Next, transitory ritualisation processes will be considered in order to reflect on the issue of these small rites that enable the child's socialisation and to verbalise the unspoken organisational aspects of the feeding environment in terms of certain cognitive shortcuts that are far from insignificant in daily life, comprising a vital process for parental organisation and, more broadly, for the feeding environment. The "transitory" dimension made it possible to put change and the dynamics of child and adult adaptation at the centre of the ritualisation of daily life as a result of the swings and transitions at work during food socialisation leading the child towards a non-specific diet. Thus, by analysing the diet of young children in this way, it was possible to study the various mental and physical pressures present in the feeding environment and the disparities at work in the threefold work of acquisition-transformation, relationship and love involved in the feeding role. Here again, the plurality and the complexity observed made it possible to re-question the division of domestic and parental tasks in respect of food during early childhood both in practice and in terms of values. Finally, implicitly throughout this study, we looked at the effects of the various educational influences on the processes of food socialisation in the child. The more a person is involved in the feeding role, the more that person has an influence on the relationship between food and the child's health, pleasure, well-being, self-fulfilment and development (Dupuy, 2013, 2014). Consequently, the socialisation processes experienced with the child are complicated, even more so given the concerns that weigh heavily on early childhood, which are currently centred on the importance of feeding children tasty healthy food in the first 1000 days of their lives. Nutritional needs, dietary needs and emotional needs are combined and are translated into, among other things, a sense of catching up in the feeding methods used or by parental guilt and also by a "stencil effect" (Fischler, 1990) in terms of both the list of foods offered to the child and the way in which the child is fed depending on the circumstances, the place, the time, the effect produced, etc. These elements can influence the socialisation processes at work in the child, i.e. what the child receives, how he experiences it and relates to it emotionally and, more importantly, what he takes away from it. Consequently, in the first part, we will set out the context and the challenges of children's diets in order to set the stage for questions involving the concerns surrounding the relationships between diet and health and diet and transmission for early childhood as a result of the importance placed on the first 1000 days in the life of a child. This will provide an opportunity to put these notions back in the centre of individual, collective and social dynamics. The second part will deal with the unequal distribution of the feeding work in respect of the young child. A third part will look at the empirical data of this study, and will be broken down into discussions on the methodology employed and on the study populations in the two geographical areas of France: Toulouse, Paris and their respective suburbs. Finally, the fourth and fifth parts will revisit two particular results from our research. We will discuss the organisational logic and the processes of food socialisation in order to gain an understanding of the evolution of the dietary act by moving away from the specific in favour of the general. We will then suggest a description and an analysis of the complex and unequal feeding work undertaken by parents. Bibliography: Dupuy A., 2013, Plaisirs alimentaires, Socialisation des enfants et des adolescents, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes.Dupuy A., 2014, « Regard(s) « sur » et « par » l’alimentation pour renverser et comprendre comment sont renversĂ©s les rapports de gĂ©nĂ©rations : l’exemple de la socialisation alimentaire inversĂ©e », Enfances Familles GĂ©nĂ©rations, p. 79-108.Dupuy A et Rochedy A., 2015, L’alimentation des O-3 ans.ComprĂ©hension des processus de socialisations alimentaires des enfants entre 0 et 3 ans et Ă©tude des logiques de co-socialisation et de co-Ă©ducation de l’entourage nourricier, Rapport de Recherche CNRS – BlĂ©dina. Fischler C., 1990, L’homnivore, Paris, Odile Jacob.Vandelac L., BĂ©lisle D., Gauthier A. et Pinard Y., 1985, Du travail et de l’amour, les dessous de la production domestique, QuĂ©bec, Saint-Martin

    Human granzyme B regulatory B cells prevent effector CD4+CD25- T cell proliferation through a mechanism dependent from lymphotoxin alpha

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    IntroductionHuman Granzyme B (GZMB) regulatory B cells (Bregs) have suppressive properties on CD4+ effector T cells by a mechanism partially dependent on GZMB. Moreover, these cells may be easily induced in vitro making them interesting for cell therapy.MethodsWe characterized this population of in vitro induced GZMB+Bregs using single cell transcriptomics. To investigate their regulatory properties, Bregs or total B cells were also co-cultured with T cells and scRNAseq was used to identify receptor ligand interactions and to reveal gene expression changes in the T cells.ResultsWe find that Bregs exhibit a unique set of 149 genes differentially expressed and which are implicated in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and altered antigen presentation capacity consistent with their differentiated B cells profile. Notably, Bregs induced a strong inhibition of T cell genes associated to proliferation, activation, inflammation and apoptosis compared to total B cells. We identified and validated 5 receptor/ligand interactions between Bregs and T cells. Functional analysis using specific inhibitors was used to test their suppressive properties and we identified Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) as a new and potent Breg ligand implicated in Breg suppressive properties.DiscussionWe report for the first time for a role of LTA in GZMB+Bregs as an enhancer of GZMB expression, and involved in the suppressive properties of GZMB+Bregs in human. The exact mechanism of LTA/GZMB function in this specific subset of Bregs remains to be determined

    Socialisations alimentaires et pratiques rituelles durant la petite enfance

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    International audienceTwo insights can be drawn from the data presented in this article. The first one consists in examining the articulation between daily rituals and routines, two “objects” too often treated separately in scientific literature. The second one allows for a reflection on the impact of the small rites of passage inherent to the diversification of food consumption and which are defined as “ephemeral rituals”. From a diachronic perspective, this article deals with the multiplicity of ritual practices that take place during family socialisation. From a synchronic point of view, it supports a dynamic view of rituals as a result of the changes at work during the food socialisation of the young child. As these rituals and daily habits are unique and ephemeral, they are considered as “little nothings”, and this contributes to their inconspicuousness. This article intends to highlight their importance not only to the child’s individual socialisation process, but also to family food socialisation. This perspective implicitly questions the liminal status of the child during the process of diversification of food consumption. It also examines how the household production of rituals sets “minor transitions” in the children’s socializing phase, thus leading to the definition of new foods and to the acknowledgement of their status as eaters.Deux perspectives se dĂ©gagent des donnĂ©es exposĂ©es de cet article. La premiĂšre consiste Ă  apprĂ©hender les ressorts de l’articulation des rituels et des routines dans la vie quotidienne, soit Ă  penser ensemble des « objets » qui se rencontrent peu dans la littĂ©rature. La seconde ouvre la rĂ©flexion sur la place des petits rituels de passage au cours de la diversification alimentaire que l’on dĂ©signe comme « rituels Ă©phĂ©mĂšres ». Dans une perspective diachronique, l’article aborde la pluralitĂ© des pratiques rituelles durant la socialisation familiale ordinaire et, d’un point de vue synchronique, il Ă©taye une conception dynamique des rituels, du fait des mutations Ă  l’Ɠuvre au cours de la socialisation alimentaire du jeune enfant. Comme il s’agit de pratiques rituelles domestiques, singuliĂšres et Ă©phĂ©mĂšres, elles s’apparentent Ă  des « petits riens », ce qui contribue Ă  les invisibiliser. Notre propos est de montrer la place qu’elles occupent, au contraire, non seulement dans la socialisation de l’enfant, mais aussi plus largement dans les socialisations alimentaires familiales. La perspective proposĂ©e contribue en filigrane Ă  questionner la position liminale du petit enfant au cours de la diversification alimentaire et Ă  regarder comment la production domestique de rituels fixe des « petits passages » dans la socialisation de l’enfant contribuant Ă  la dĂ©finition de nouveaux rĂ©pertoires alimentaires et statuts de mangeur

    Young eater's diet : a complex situation making difficult the match with classical growth development models

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    International audienceINTRODUCTION: Beyond nutrition, food has hedonic, social and cultural functions. Few studies exist on the socio-cultural dimensions of French babies’ feeding practices. OBJECTIVES: Analyse the material dimension of young children’s eating habits (industrialised or "homemade", textures, portion size, quantity of nutrients, etc.), along with the different children’s phases of development and socialization; explore the immaterial dimension by understanding parental activities around children's food as the result of a triple process (material, cognitive, emotional); capture the social norms and the cognitive discrepancies between norms and practices. METHOD: A qualitative study was performed to understand eating practices and representations related to 0 to 3 year old babies. Semi-directive interviews (54 parents) were performed in two French towns and their surrounding areas. Each family was interviewed twice to go into discussions in depth and comeback on dimensions identified as contradictory after the first interview. Additionally, parents were asked to take pictures in between the two interviews in order to prompt discussion and exchange during the second interview. A netnography was added to go into lines of research in depth. RESULTS: This study brings elements on 1) children’s eating practices and the link with children’s nutritional and psychosocial needs, 2) caregivers’ eating practices and their impact on children’s co-socialization and co-education dynamics. Results show that material, cognitive and emotional burdens weigh unequally on parents, leading to the development of organisational adaptive strategies (delegation, ritualization, routinization) to reduce daily dietary tasks but without necessarily being compatible with children’s health, sensory awakening and masticatory development. CONCLUSIONS: This socio-anthropological study allows considering 0 to 3 year old baby’s feeding practices beyond classical theoretical growth development models and highlights the importance of young eaters’ socialization and its consequences. It demonstrates that young eaters are plural with complex eating habits requiring constant re-adjustments from their caregivers

    Caractéristiques cliniques et pronostic des patients avec pneumopathie interstitielle diffuse admis en soins intensifs pour détresse respiratoire

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    Il n existe que peu de donnĂ©es sur le pronostic des patients prĂ©sentant une pneumopathie interstitielle diffuse (PID) et admis en rĂ©animation. Evaluer le devenir des patients avec PID admis en rĂ©animation pour dĂ©tresse respiratoire aiguĂ«, avec un intĂ©rĂȘt particulier pour ceux atteint de Fibrose Idiopathique (FI) ou de pneumopathie mĂ©dicamenteuse. Identification rĂ©trospective des patients avec PID admis en rĂ©animation ou en soins continus pneumologiques Ă  l HEGP entre 1993 et 2009. Le critĂšre de jugement principal Ă©tait la mortalitĂ© intra-hospitaliĂšre.72 patients ont Ă©tĂ© inclus, divisĂ©s en 3 groupes : FI, n=28 ; pneumopathie mĂ©dicamenteuse (PM), n=20 et diverses PID, n=24. Les taux de mortalitĂ© Ă©taient respectivement de 68, 40 et 25% pour les FI, les PM et les diverses PID (p=0,006). Ils atteignaient 100, 64 et 60% en cas de recours Ă  la ventilation mĂ©canique (p=0,007). En analyse multivariĂ©e, le recours Ă  l assistance ventilatoire (invasive ou non invasive) (OR= 35; [95% IC, 5-255]), le type de PID (FI vs divers PID) (OR=22; [95% IC, 3-147]) et le traitement par corticoĂŻdes Ă  la phase aigue (OR=0.19; [95% IC, 0.04-0.99]) ont Ă©tĂ© identifiĂ©s comme facteurs prĂ©dictifs de mortalitĂ©. Cette Ă©tude confirme le mauvais pronostic des patients avec FI admis en rĂ©animation et particuliĂšrement en cas de ventilation mĂ©canique. En revanche, les pneumopathies mĂ©dicamenteuses ou autres formes de PID ont, malgrĂ© des critĂšres de sĂ©vĂ©ritĂ© similaires Ă  l entrĂ©e, un meilleur pronostic. Enfin, l instauration d une corticothĂ©rapie Ă  la phase aigue apparaĂźt comme un facteur protecteur quel que soit le type de PID.PARIS6-Bibl.PitiĂ©-SalpĂȘtrie (751132101) / SudocSudocFranceF

    Etude de la catalyse microbienne de la réduction électrochimique du dioxygÚne

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    TOULOUSE3-BU Sciences (315552104) / SudocPARIS-BIUP (751062107) / SudocSudocFranceF

    Implementation of a medical ethics course in undergraduate dental education and assessment of knowledge and attitudes

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    International audienceObjectives: A medical ethics course was launched in 2012 in a French University Dental School. We compared knowledge and attitudes, before and after implementation of that course. The aim of this study was to compare students who received an ethics course (third year) to those who did not have such training, however, most of them did have some clinical traineeship. Materials and Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to the second-, third-, and sixth-year students. It comprised questions with Likert item format answers and clinical vignettes with open responses. The results were analyzed by two approaches: a statistical analysis (chi-square or Fischer exact tests) and a content analysis using a predefined grid. Results: A total of 299 respondents replied (75% students) the questionnaire. The analysis showed a statistically significant association between knowledge of the law and information procedures (P < 0.0001), access to medical files (P = 0.004), and recording consent (P = 0.049). It was also significant between knowledge of the law and the principles of biomedical ethics (P < 0.0001 for autonomy and beneficence). The third-year students could state the principles of medical ethics with their percentage always greater than the sixth-year students. After the third year, the students’ attitudes switched from a social to a medical emphasis, and their point of view regarding patient’s autonomy evolved. Patient’s refusal of care raised potential conflicts between autonomy, professional judgment, information, and consent. Conclusion: Ethics teaching could offer a way to turn positive attitudes into real competencies and should be considered at an early stage
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