3,770 research outputs found

    200 mm Sensor Development Using Bonded Wafers

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    Sensors fabricated from high resistivity, float zone, silicon material have been the basis of vertex detectors and trackers for the last 30 years. The areas of these devices have increased from a few square cm to 200 m2\> 200\ m^2 for the existing CMS tracker. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), CMS and ATLAS tracker upgrades will each require more than 200 m2200\ m^2 of silicon and the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will require more than $600\ m^2.Thecostandcomplexityofassemblyofthesedevicesisrelatedtotheareaofeachmodule,whichinturnissetbythesizeofthesiliconsensors.Inadditiontolargearea,thedevicesmustberadiationhard,whichrequirestheuseofsensorsthinnedto200micronsorless.Thecombinationofwaferthinningandlargewaferdiameterisasignificanttechnicalchallenge,andisthesubjectofthiswork.Wedescribeworkondevelopmentofthinsensorson. The cost and complexity of assembly of these devices is related to the area of each module, which in turn is set by the size of the silicon sensors. In addition to large area, the devices must be radiation hard, which requires the use of sensors thinned to 200 microns or less. The combination of wafer thinning and large wafer diameter is a significant technical challenge, and is the subject of this work. We describe work on development of thin sensors on 200 mm$ wafers using wafer bonding technology. Results of development runs with float zone, Silicon-on-Insulator and Silicon-Silicon bonded wafer technologies are reported.Comment: 11 page

    Charge Collection and Electrical Characterization of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Pad Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

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    The replacement of the existing endcap calorimeter in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), scheduled for 2027, will be a high granularity calorimeter. It will provide detailed position, energy, and timing information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the immense pileup of the HL-LHC. The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will use 120-, 200-, and 300-μm\mu\textrm{m} thick silicon (Si) pad sensors as the main active material and will sustain 1-MeV neutron equivalent fluences up to about 1016 neqcm210^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2}. In order to address the performance degradation of the Si detectors caused by the intense radiation environment, irradiation campaigns of test diode samples from 8-inch and 6-inch wafers were performed in two reactors. Characterization of the electrical and charge collection properties after irradiation involved both bulk polarities for the three sensor thicknesses. Since the Si sensors will be operated at -30 ^\circC to reduce increasing bulk leakage current with fluence, the charge collection investigation of 30 irradiated samples was carried out with the infrared-TCT setup at -30 ^\circC. TCAD simulation results at the lower fluences are in close agreement with the experimental results and provide predictions of sensor performance for the lower fluence regions not covered by the experimental study. All investigated sensors display 60%\% or higher charge collection efficiency at their respective highest lifetime fluences when operated at 800 V, and display above 90%\% at the lowest fluence, at 600 V. The collected charge close to the fluence of 1016 neqcm210^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2} exceeds 1 fC at voltages beyond 800 V.Comment: 36 pages, 34 figure

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum