784 research outputs found

    Role of CYP2C9, VKORC1 and Calumenin Genotypes in Monitoring Warfarin Therapy: An Egyptian Study

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    Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy is conditioned by environmental and genetic factors.Objectives: To verify the effect of the calumenin, cytochrome P-450 variants and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms on the response to warfarin therapy and warfarin dose adjustment.Patients and Methods: We selected fifty warfarin treated patients with dose adjusted at INR value between 2 and 3. PCR-RFLP is used for of calumenin gene polymorphism. Insitu Hybridization was used for identification of VKORC1 promoter and CYP2C9 variants polymorphisms.Results: The warfarin dose in the patients with Calumenin and CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism was lower than the wild type gene. The warfarin dose in the patients with VKORC1 variants was statistically lower compared to that of the wild-type. The presence of combined CYP2C9 genetic variants and VKORC1 polymorphism was associated with lower warfarin dose than that the wild types.Conclusion: Calumenin (CALU) might be a new genetic factor involved in the pharmacogenetics of anticoagulant therapy

    Diagnostic and prognostic impact of E6/E7 mRNA compared to HPV DNA and p16 expression in head and neck cancers: an Egyptian study

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    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is identified as a culprit in a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). The clinicopathologic profile displayed by this subset diverges from that of HPV-negative HNSCCs. Despite a variety of available tests, there is no consensus on which technique is the best for detection of HPV in HNSCCs. Although this field has received substantial interest within different continents, African and Egyptian populations are not yet well studied within the literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out to detect HPV prevalence in HNSSC and to correlate the viral prevalence with different clinicopathologic parameters as well as with the patients‚Äô outcome. For 51 patients with HNSCC, HPV-16 DNA was determined via PCR, while E6/ E7 mRNA was detected employing real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to assess p16 status. Results: P16 was overexpressed in 49% of cases, while HPV-16 DNA was detected in 52.9% of cases, and likewise, E6/E7 mRNA was found in 52.9% of cases. There was a very good agreement between HPV16 DNA and RNA results (őļ = 0.843, P-value <0.001). Meanwhile, a good agreement was revealed between HPV16 DNA and p16 IHC results (őļ = 0.608, P-value <0.001). Similarly, there was a good agreement between HPV RNA results and p16 IHC results (őļ = 0.608, P-value <0.001). By the end of the study period, 13.7% of the enrolled patients died, with the overall survival of the studied patients being 17.29 months. Of note, there was no statistically significant correlation between the overall survival and HPV status. Conclusion: The present study highlights the significant role played by HPV in HNSCC. Furthermore, it reveals that although p16 has been a marker of HPV existence in HNSCC, it should not be the sole determinant of HPV role in tumorigenesis

    Effects of cumulative COVID-19 cases on mental health: Evidence from multi-country survey.

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    Depression and anxiety were both ranked among the top 25 leading causes of global burden of diseases in 2019 prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The pandemic affected, and in many cases threatened, the health and lives of millions of people across the globe and within the first year, global prevalence of anxiety and depression increased by 25% with the greatest influx in places highly affected by COVID-19. To explore the psychological impact of the pandemic and resultant restrictions in different countries using an opportunistic sample and online questionnaire in different phases of the pandemic. A repeated, cross-sectional online international survey of adults, 16 years and above, was carried out in 10 countries (United Kingdom, India, Canada, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Egypt, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia). The online questionnaire was based on published approaches to understand the psychological impact of COVID-19 and the resultant restrictions. Five standardised measures were included to explore levels of depression [patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9)], anxiety [generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) assessment], impact of trauma [the impact of events scale-revised (IES-R)], loneliness (a brief loneliness scale), and social support (The Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social support). There were two rounds of the online survey in 10 countries with 42866 participants in Round 1 and 92260 in Round 2. The largest number of participants recruited from the United Kingdom (112985 overall). The majority of participants reported receiving no support from mental health services throughout the pandemic. This study found that the daily cumulative COVID-19 cases had a statistically significant effect on PHQ-9, GAD-7, and IES-R scores. These scores significantly increased in the second round of surveys with the ordinary least squares regression results with regression discontinuity design specification (to control lockdown effects) confirming these results. The study findings imply that participants' mental health worsened with high cumulative COVID-19 cases. Whist we are still living through the impact of COVID-19, this paper focuses on its impact on mental health, discusses the possible consequences and future implications. This study revealed that daily cumulative COVID-19 cases have a significant impact on depression, anxiety, and trauma. Increasing cumulative cases influenced and impacted education, employment, socialization and finances, to name but a few. Building a database of global evidence will allow for future planning of pandemics, particularly the impact on mental health of populations considering the cultural differences. [Abstract copyright: ©The Author(s) 2023. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Prognostic tools and candidate drugs based on plasma proteomics of patients with severe COVID-19 complications

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    COVID-19 complications still present a huge burden on healthcare systems and warrant predictive risk models to triage patients and inform early intervention. Here, we profile 893 plasma proteins from 50 severe and 50 mild-moderate COVID-19 patients, and 50 healthy controls, and show that 375 proteins are differentially expressed in the plasma of severe COVID-19 patients. These differentially expressed plasma proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and present targets for candidate drugs to prevent or treat severe complications. Based on the plasma proteomics and clinical lab tests, we also report a 12-plasma protein signature and a model of seven routine clinical tests that validate in an independent cohort as early risk predictors of COVID-19 severity and patient survival. The risk predictors and candidate drugs described in our study can be used and developed for personalized management of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. 2022, The Author(s).The authors would like to thank all the patients, volunteers, and the healthcare co-workers from Allergy and Immunology Section-HMC, and Dr. Mohamed G.H. Mohamedali, Mr. Hassen Maatoug, and Mr. Ahmed Soliman from Hezm Mebairek General Hospital-HMC for developing disposable racks for samples transportation, tubes labeling, blood collection, and handling. We thank the support provided by Qatar University Biomedical Research Centre, Biosafety Level 3, and Associate Professor Hadi M. Yassine (M.Sc., Ph.D.). We also acknowledge the help of the Anti-Doping Lab-Qatar (ADLQ) and Qatar Red Crescent (QRC) for recruiting control samples. This work was supported by a grant fund from Hamad Medical Corporation (fund number MRC-05-003) and core funding from Qatar Biomedical Research Institute (QBRI).Scopu

    Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective, international, multicentre cohort study