4,456 research outputs found

    Somatic Cells and High Bacteria Counts: How to Deal With Them

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    Under the current component pricing system dairy producers are paid by the amount of components (protein, butterfat, other solids) that end up in their milk tanks every day. On top of these, premiums increase their gross revenue, which include over-order premiums, quality premiums, and volume premiums. Quality premiums are paid to encourage producers to supply high quality milk and vary depending on the individual processor. Although quality premiums might sometimes seem small, we usually fail to understand that high somatic cell counts (SCC) are closely associated with milk production loss and thus milk volume premiums. Concentration of components, total milk shipped, and milk quality as represented by SCC and bacteria counts are among the things producers can control

    Effect of debris size on the tribological performance of thermally sprayed coatings

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    This research aims to assess the effect of the debris particle size on the tribological performance and lubrication regime parameters of a Ni-based alloy coating. This is a key industrial problem, and its resolution can contribute to better machine endurance and proper maintenance. The debris particles are simulated by hard Al2O3 particles of size ranging from nanometers to 45 ÎĽm and dispersed in an oil lubricant. The coating studied is NiCrBSi deposited by flame spraying technique followed by the Surface Flame Melting (SFM) process. The counterpart disk sample was fabricated from quenched and tempered F-5220 steel (in line with A681(O1) ASTM). This pair was tested under linear sliding contact. Our results show that the addition of alumina particles contributes to a significant increase in wear, particularly for the largest particles (micrometric size). In the case of micrometric particles, it is possible to observe the formation of higher surface roughness, numerous microgrooves, and plastic flow of NiCrBSi coating perpendicular to the sliding direction, resulting in higher loss of volume. It was found that the actual surface roughness (obtained as a function of the debris particle size) allows better identification and prediction of the lubrication regime for wear processes instead of the traditional approach that uses the initial surface roughness as a parameter

    On the consistency of the Horava Theory

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    With the goal of giving evidence for the theoretical consistency of the Horava Theory, we perform a Hamiltonian analysis on a classical model suitable for analyzing its effective dynamics at large distances. The model is the lowest-order truncation of the Horava Theory with the detailed-balance condition. We consider the pure gravitational theory without matter sources. The model has the same potential term of general relativity, but the kinetic term is modified by the inclusion of an arbitrary coupling constant lambda. Since this constant breaks the general covariance under space-time diffeomorphisms, it is believed that arbitrary values of lambda deviate the model from general relativity. We show that this model is not a deviation at all, instead it is completely equivalent to general relativity in a particular partial gauge fixing for it. In doing this, we clarify the role of a second-class constraint of the model.Comment: The wording has been revised in general, specially in abstract, introduction and conclusions. No changes in results. Version published in IJMP

    Antimagnets: Controlling magnetic fields with superconductor-metamaterial hybrids

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    Magnetism is very important in science and technology, from magnetic recording to energy generation to trapping cold atoms. Physicists have managed to master magnetism - to create and manipulate magnetic fields- almost at will. Surprisingly, there is at least one property which until now has been elusive: how to 'switch off' the magnetic interaction of a magnetic material with existing magnetic fields without modifying them. Here we introduce the antimagnet, a design to conceal the magnetic response of a given volume from its exterior, without altering the external magnetic fields, somehow analogous to the recent theoretical proposals for cloaking electromagnetic waves with metamaterials. However, different from these devices requiring extreme material properties, our device is feasible and needs only two kinds of available materials: superconductors and isotropic magnetic materials. Antimagnets may have applications in magnetic-based medical techniques such as MRI or in reducing the magnetic signature of vessels or planes.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figure

    Understanding Relative Feed Value (RFV) and Relative Forage Quality (RFQ)

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    Feed quality of alfalfa harvested as haylage or hay depends, to a great extent, on the maturity of the stand. With increasing maturity, plant structural carbohydrates, as measured by the ADF and NDF fractions, increase. These fiber fractions represent the more indigestible parts of the plant. As a result, digestibility and energy obtained through fermentation decrease with maturity. Relative feed value (RFV) has been used for years to compare the quality of legume and legume/grass hays and silages. Having one index to price hay and predict animal performance has been very useful for livestock producers and hay farmers

    Progress towards interruption of transmission of Chagas disease

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    RFV vs. RFQ -- Which is Better?

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    Determining the value of hay is often times a trying adventure but the rewards can be significant. It begs the question though, what do those numbers really tell me? Do they provide me pertinent information? There are so many numbers…which ones do I need to be concerned with? All of the numbers and information on the results sheets are important. However, certain numbers have greater bearing on some classes of livestock than others. As research continues to give us new parameters regarding, herd health, pounds of gain, pounds of milk, maintenance, etc. the importance of these will also likely change as well
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