5,842 research outputs found

    Seasonal cycle of precipitation variability in South America on intraseasonal timescales

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    The seasonal cycle of the intraseasonal (IS) variability of precipitation in South America is described through the analysis of bandpass filtered outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies. The analysis is discriminated between short (10--30 days) and long (30--90 days) intraseasonal timescales. The seasonal cycle of the 30--90-day IS variability can be well described by the activity of first leading pattern (EOF1) computed separately for the wet season (October--April) and the dry season (May--September). In agreement with previous works, the EOF1 spatial distribution during the wet season is that of a dipole with centers of actions in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and southeastern South America (SESA), while during the dry season, only the last center is discernible. In both seasons, the pattern is highly influenced by the activity of the Madden--Julian Oscillation (MJO). Moreover, EOF1 is related with a tropical zonal-wavenumber-1 structure superposed with coherent wave trains extended along the South Pacific during the wet season, while during the dry season the wavenumber-1 structure is not observed. The 10--30-day IS variability of OLR in South America can be well represented by the activity of the EOF1 computed through considering all seasons together, a dipole but with the stronger center located over SESA. While the convection activity at the tropical band does not seem to influence its activity, there are evidences that the atmospheric variability at subtropical-extratropical regions might have a role. Subpolar wavetrains are observed in the Pacific throughout the year and less intense during DJF, while a path of wave energy dispersion along a subtropical wavetrain also characterizes the other seasons. Further work is needed to identify the sources of the 10--30-day-IS variability in South America

    Cord blood Lin(-)CD45(-) embryonic-like stem cells are a heterogeneous population that lack self-renewal capacity.

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    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) has been proposed to contain not only haematopoietic stem cells, but also a rare pluripotent embryonic-like stem cell (ELSc) population that is negative for hematopoietic markers (Lin(-)CD45(-)) and expresses markers typical of pluripotent cells. The aim of this work was to isolate, characterise and expand this ELSc fraction from hUCB, as it may provide a valuable cell source for regenerative medicine applications. We found that we could indeed isolate a Lin(-)CD45(-) population of small cells (3-10 µm diameter) with a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio that expressed the stem cell markers CD34 and CXCR4. However, in contrast to some previous reports, this fraction was not positive for CD133. Furthermore, although these cells expressed transcripts typical of pluripotent cells, such as SOX2, OCT3/4, and NANOG, they were not able to proliferate in any of the culture media known to support stem cell growth that we tested. Further analysis of the Lin(-)CD45(-) population by flow cytometry showed the presence of a Lin(-)CD45(-)Nestin(+) population that were also positive for CD34 (20%) but negative for CXCR4. These data suggest that the Lin(-)CD45(-) stem cell fraction present in the cord blood represents a small heterogeneous population with phenotypic characteristics of stem cells, including a Lin(-)CD45(-)Nestin(+) population not previously described. This study also suggests that heterogeneity within the Lin(-)CD45(-) cell fraction is the likely explanation for differences in the hUCB cell populations described by different groups that were isolated using different methods. These populations have been widely called "embryonic-like stem cell" on the basis of their phenotypical similarity to embryonic stem cells. However, the fact they do not seem to be able to self-renew casts some doubt on their identity, and warns against defining them as "embryonic-like stem cell" at this stage.Anthony Nolan and the Great Ormond Street Hospital Charity for financial support. Cesar Alvarez-Gonzalez is a fellowship from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) and Instituto Jaliscience de la Juventud (IJJ); Mexico

    Aging-associated symptoms in the physician-patient dialogue in a group of long-term diagnosed HIV-infected individuals

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    Background: The significant decrease in mortality has resulted in a large number of individuals aged over 50 living with HIV infection. Additionally, the coexistence of certain pathologies suggests premature aging. In this scenario, the presence of aging-associated symptoms in the physician-patient dialogue is yet to be explored. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study to evaluate the presence of aging-associated symptoms in the physician-patient dialogue and to explore the possible differences between genders in a sample of 100 HIV-1 infected subjects diagnosed at least 15 years ago. The survey assessed questions/comments made by the patient, questions/comments made by the physician and patients’ interest in obtaining more information than was provided. Number of patients and percentages were given and compared using the w2 or Fisher exact test (as appropriate). Results: Participants were 60 men and 40 women, diagnosed with HIV infection a median (IQ) of 18 (15.7–21) years ago, who had a nadir CD4 and CD4 cell count at the study entry of 172 (95–272) and 543 (403–677), respectively. Eighty percent of the subjects had VL <25 copies and 42% were HCV/HIV co-infected (31 subjects with low fibrosis stage). The infection route had been mainly intravenous drug use (37%) and MSM (32%). Men and women had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Sixty-two percent of the participants acknowledged asking their physicians about aging-associated symptoms (58% men vs 66% women; p=0.50), 48% reported that their physicians had provided information without having been asked (48% men vs 55% women; p=0.51) and 75% confirmed that they would like to have more information about aging-associated symptoms (22% men vs 80% women; p<0.001). Conclusions: Around half of the men and women interviewed had discussed aging-associated symptoms with their physician. However, this seemed insufficient for four-fifths of the women, who would have liked to have obtained more information about aging

    Epidemiological studies on dengue virus type 3 in Playa municipality, Havana, Cuba, 2001–2002

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    SummaryObjectivesRecognizing the uniqueness of secondary dengue virus (DENV)-1/3 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) cases at an interval of 24 years, we sought to estimate DENV infections as well as the ratios between mild disease and DHF/DSS by DENV infection sequence in Playa District (Havana, Cuba) during the 2001–2002 outbreak of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3).MethodsA retrospective seroepidemiological study was conducted in 2003 in Playa District. Blood samples were collected from a 1% random sample of residents and were studied for the prevalence of dengue neutralizing antibodies.ResultsDENV-3 was found to have infected 7.2% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.0–8.4%) of susceptible individuals (the entire cohort), the majority of whom experienced silent infections. Virtually every individual who had a secondary infection in the sequence DENV-1 then DENV-3 became ill, with a ratio of severe to mild cases of 1:35 (95% CI 1:67–1:23). Secondary infections in the sequence DENV-2/3 were less pathogenic than DENV-1/3. Mild disease accompanying secondary DENV2/3 occurred at a ratio of 1:4.49 infections (95% CI 1:5.77–1:3.42) secondary infections.ConclusionsThe results obtained highlight the role of the infecting serotype and also the sequence of the viral infection in the clinical outcome of a dengue infection

    Cardiotrophin-1 promotes a high survival rate in rabbits with lethal fulminant hepatitis of viral origin

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    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes lethal fulminant hepatitis closely resembling acute liver failure (ALF) in humans. In this study, we investigated whether cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a cytokine with hepatoprotective properties, could attenuate liver damage and prolong survival in virus-induced ALF. Twenty-four rabbits were infected with 2 × 10(4) hemagglutination units of RHDV. Twelve received five doses of CT-1 (100 μg/kg) starting at 12 h postinfection (hpi) (the first three doses every 6 h and then two additional doses at 48 and 72 hpi), while the rest received saline. The animals were analyzed for survival, serum biochemistry, and viral load. Another cohort (n = 22) was infected and treated similarly, but animals were sacrificed at 30 and 36 hpi to analyze liver histology, viral load, and the expression of factors implicated in liver damage and repair. All infected rabbits that received saline died by 60 hpi, while 67% of the CT-1-treated animals survived until the end of the study. Treated animals showed improved liver function and histology, while the viral loads were similar. In the livers of CT-1-treated rabbits we observed reduction of oxidative stress, diminished PARP1/2 and JNK activation, and decreased inflammatory reaction, as reflected by reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, Toll-like receptor 4, VCAM-1, and MMP-9. In addition, CT-1-treated rabbits exhibited marked upregulation of TIMP-1 and increased expression of cytoprotective and proregenerative growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor B, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and c-Met. In conclusion, in a lethal form of acute viral hepatitis, CT-1 increases animal survival by attenuating inflammation and activating cytoprotective mechanisms, thus representing a promising therapy for ALF of viral origin

    "Assessment of effectiveness and security in high pressure postdilatation of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds during percutaneous coronary intervention. Study in a contemporary, non-selected cohort of Spanish patients"

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    OBJECTIVES: To determine security and benefits of high pressure postdilatation (HPP) of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of complex lesions whatever its indication is. BACKGROUND: Acute scaffold disruption has been proposed as the main limitation of BVS when they are overexpanded. However, clinical implications of this disarray are not yet clear and more evidence is needed. METHODS: A total of 25 BVS were deployed during PCI of 14 complex lesions after mandatory predilatation. In all cases HPP was performed with NC balloon in a 1:1 relation to the artery. After that, optical coherence tomography (OCT) analyses were performed. RESULTS: Mean and maximal postdilatation pressure were 17±3.80 and 20 atmospheres (atm) respectively. Postdilatation balloon/scaffold diameter ratio was 1.01. A total of 39,590 struts were analyzed. Mean, minimal and maximal scaffold diameter were respectively: 3.09±0.34mm, 2.88±0.31mm and 3.31±0.40mm. Mean eccentricity index was 0.13±0.05. ISA percentage was 1.42% with a total of 564 malapposed struts. 89 struts were identified as disrupted, which represents a percentage of disrupted struts of 0.22%. At 30days, none of our patients died, suffered from stroke, stent thrombosis or needed target lesion revascularization (TLR). CONCLUSIONS: NC balloon HPP of BVS at more than 17atm (up to 20atm) is safe during PCI and allows to achieve better angiographic and clinical results