203 research outputs found

    Successfully estimating tensile strength by small punch testing

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    The Small Punch (SP) test is a relatively simple test well suited for material ranking and material property estimation in situations where standard testing is not possible or considered too material consuming. The material tensile properties, e.g. the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the proof strength are usually linearly correlated to the force-deflection behaviour of a SP test. However, if the test samples and test set-up dimensions are not according to standardized dimensions or the material ductility does not allow the SP sample to deform to the pre-defined displacements used in these correlations, the standard formulations can naturally not be used. Also, in cases where no supporting UTS data is available the applied correlation factors cannot be verified. In this paper a formulation is proposed that enables the estimation of UTS without supporting uniaxial tensile strength data for a range of materials, both for standard type and for curved (tube section) samples. The proposed equation was originally developed for estimating the equivalent stress in small punch creep but is also found to robustly estimate the UTS of several ductile ferritic, ferritic/martensitic and austenitic steels. It is also shown that the methodology can be further applied on non-standard test samples and test set-ups and to estimate the properties of less ductile materials such as 46% cold worked 15-15Ti cladding steel tubes. In the case of curved samples the UTS estimates have to be corrected for curvature to match the corresponding flat specimen behaviour. The geometrical correction factors are dependent on tube diameters and wall thicknesses and were determined by finite element simulations. The outcome of the testing and simulation work shows that the UTS can be robustly estimated both for flat samples as well as for thin walled tube samples. The usability of the SP testing and assessment method for estimating tensile strength of engineering steels in general and for nuclear claddings in specific has been verified

    Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

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    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process, ő≤-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes

    Measurement of the 241Am neutron capture cross section at the n-TOF facility at CERN

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    New neutron cross section measurements of minor actinides have been performed recently in order to reduce the uncertainties in the evaluated data, which is important for the design of advanced nuclear reactors and, in particular, for determining their performance in the transmutation of nuclear waste. We have measured the 241 Am(n,ő≥) cross section at the n TOF facility between 0.2 eV and 10 keV with a BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter, and the analysis of the measurement has been recently concluded. Our results are in reasonable agreement below 20 eV with the ones published by C. Lampoudis et al. in 2013, who reported a 22% larger capture cross section up to 110 eV compared to experimental and evaluated data published before. Our results also indicate that the 241 Am(n,ő≥) cross section is underestimated in the present evaluated libraries between 20 eV and 2 keV by 25%, on average, and up to 35% for certain evaluations and energy ranges.Plan Nacional I+D+I FPA2014-53290-C2-1Comisi√≥n Europea, ANDES FP7- 249671Comisi√≥n Europea, CHANDA FP7-60520

    Beyond the neutron drip line: The unbound oxygen isotopes (25)O and (26)O

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    This is the publisher's version, and is also available electronically from http://journals.aps.org/prc/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevC.88.034313.The very neutron-rich oxygen isotopes 25O and 26O are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The unbound states are populated in an experiment performed at the R3B-LAND setup at GSI via proton-knockout reactions from 26F and 27F at relativistic energies around 442 and 414 MeV/nucleon, respectively. From the kinematically complete measurement of the decay into 24O plus one or two neutrons, the 25O ground-state energy and width are determined, and upper limits for the 26O ground-state energy and lifetime are extracted. In addition, the results provide indications for an excited state in 26O at around 4 MeV. The experimental findings are compared to theoretical shell-model calculations based on chiral two- and three-nucleon (3N) forces, including for the first time residual 3N forces, which are shown to be amplified as valence neutrons are added

    European standard on small punch testing of metallic materials

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    In the 1980s, studying the effect of neutron irradiation and temper embrittlement on structural materials for the fusion and fission programmes was a major challenge. In this context the development of small specimen test techniques began, allowing the characterization of structural materials for nuclear applications with small amounts of material. The small punch technique is of one these small specimen test approaches. It is widely used for the development and monitoring of structural materials, however there is currently no comprehensive international standard for small punch testing. An EN standard on small punch testing is currently being developed under the auspices of ECISS/TC101/WG1. Besides describing the apparatus, procedures, and specimens, it will include recommendations for the estimation of tensile, fracture and creep properties from small punch testing as well as machine readable formats for representing and transferring test data. This paper describes the current status of the standard and highlights some of the changes with regard to the current CWA 15672 (2007)

    Measurement and analysis of the 241 Am neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The 241 Am ( n , ő≥ ) cross section has been measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN with the n_TOF BaF 2 Total Absorption Calorimeter in the energy range between 0.2 eV and 10 keV. Our results are analyzed as resolved resonances up to 700 eV, allowing a more detailed description of the cross section than in the current evaluations, which contain resolved resonances only up to 150‚Äď160 eV. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is perfectly consistent with the predictions based on the average resonance parameters deduced from the resolved resonances, thus obtaining a consistent description of the cross section in the full neutron energy range under study. Below 20 eV, our results are in reasonable agreement with JEFF-3.2 as well as with the most recent direct measurements of the resonance integral, and differ up to 20‚Äď30% with other experimental data. Between 20 eV and 1 keV, the disagreement with other experimental data and evaluations gradually decreases, in general, with the neutron energy. Above 1 keV, we find compatible results with previously existing values.Plan Nacional de I+D+i de F√≠sica de Part√≠culas de Espa√Īa. FPA2016-76765-P y FPA2014-53290-C2-1-PSeventh Framework Programme de la Comunidad Europea. ANDES FP7-249671 y CHANDA FP7- 60520

    Ni-62(n,gamma) and Ni-63(n,gamma) cross sections measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The cross section of the Ni-62(n,gamma) reaction was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. Capture kernels of 42 resonances were analyzed up to 200 keV neutron energy and Maxwellian averaged cross sections (MACS) from kT = 5-100 keV were calculated. With a total uncertainty of 4.5%, the stellar cross section is in excellent agreement with the the KADoNiS compilation at kT = 30 keV, while being systematically lower up to a factor of 1.6 at higher stellar temperatures. The cross section of the Ni-63(n,gamma) reaction was measured for the first time at n_TOF. We determined unresolved cross sections from 10 to 270 keV with a systematic uncertainty of 17%. These results provide fundamental constraints on s-process production of heavier species, especially the production of Cu in massive stars, which serve as the dominant source of Cu in the solar system.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Measurement of the 12C(n,p)12B cross section at n-TOF at CERN by in-beam activation analysis

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    The integral cross section of the 12C(n,p)12B reaction has been determined for the first time in the neutron energy range from threshold to several GeV at the n-TOF facility at CERN. The measurement relies on the activation technique with the ő≤ decay of 12B measured over a period of four half-lives within the same neutron bunch in which the reaction occurs. The results indicate that model predictions, used in a variety of applications, are mostly inadequate. The value of the integral cross section reported here can be used as a benchmark for verifying or tuning model calculations.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    High-accuracy determination of the U 238 / U 235 fission cross section ratio up to ‚Čą1 GeV at n-TOF at CERN

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    Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article‚Äôs title, journal citation, and DOIThe U238 to U235 fission cross section ratio has been determined at n-TOF up to ‚Čą1 GeV, with two different detection systems, in different geometrical configurations. A total of four datasets has been collected and compared. They are all consistent to each other within the relative systematic uncertainty of 3-4%. The data collected at n-TOF have been suitably combined to yield a unique fission cross section ratio as a function of neutron energy. The result confirms current evaluations up to 200 MeV. Good agreement is also observed with theoretical calculations based on the INCL++/Gemini++ combination up to the highest measured energy. The n-TOF results may help solve a long-standing discrepancy between the two most important experimental datasets available so far above 20 MeV, while extending the neutron energy range for the first time up to ‚Čą1 GeV.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio
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