96 research outputs found

    Timing of Revascularization and Parenteral Antibiotic Treatment Associated with Therapeutic Failures in Ischemic Diabetic Foot Infections

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    For ischemic diabetic foot infections (DFIs), revascularization ideally occurs before surgery, while a parenteral antibiotic treatment could be more efficacious than oral agents. In our tertiary center, we investigated the effects of the sequence between revascularization and surgery (emphasizing the perioperative period of 2 weeks before and after surgery), and the influence of administering parenteral antibiotic therapy on the outcomes of DFIs. Among 838 ischemic DFIs with moderate-to-severe symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, we revascularized 608 (72%; 562 angioplasties, 62 vascular surgeries) and surgically debrided all. The median length of postsurgical antibiotic therapy was 21 days (given parenterally for the initial 7 days). The median time delay between revascularization and debridement surgery was 7 days. During the long-term follow-up, treatment failed and required reoperation in 182 DFI episodes (30%). By multivariate Cox regression analyses, neither a delay between surgery and angioplasty (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.0), nor the postsurgical sequence of angioplasty (HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.8), nor long-duration parenteral antibiotic therapy (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1) prevented failures. Our results might indicate the feasibility of a more practical approach to ischemic DFIs in terms of timing of vascularization and more oral antibiotic use

    Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing

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    The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger “audience”. Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that “upgrades” an individual from stranger to familiar

    Hiding from the Moonlight: Luminosity and Temperature Affect Activity of Asian Nocturnal Primates in a Highly Seasonal Forest

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    The effect of moonlight and temperature on activity of slow lorises was previously little known and this knowledge might be useful for understanding many aspects of their behavioural ecology, and developing strategies to monitor and protect populations. In this study we aimed to determine if the activity of the pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) is affected by ambient temperature and/or moonlight in a mixed deciduous forest. We radio-collared five females and five males in the Seima Protection Forest, Cambodia, in February to May, 2008 and January to March, 2009 and recorded their behaviour at 5 minutes intervals, totalling 2736 observations. We classified each observation as either inactive (sleeping or alert) or active behaviour (travel, feeding, grooming, or others). Moon luminosity (bright/dark) and ambient temperature were recorded for each observation. The response variable, activity, was binary (active or inactive), and a logit link function was used. Ambient temperature alone did not significantly affect mean activity. Although mean activity was significantly affected by moonlight, the interaction between moonlight and temperature was also significant: on bright nights, studied animals were increasingly more active with higher temperature; and on dark nights they were consistently active regardless of temperature. The most plausible explanation is that on bright cold nights the combined risk of being seen and attacked by predators and heat loss outweigh the benefit of active behaviours

    The seasonal feeding ecology of the Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus)

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    Objectives: To describe the strategy employed by exudativorous primates during seasonal shifts in food abundance using the Javan slow loris as a model. Males and females may cope differently as well as exploit fallback foods in different proportions. Materials and Methods: Observing 15 free ranging Javan slow lorises over a year, we quantified their seasonal diet and nutrient intake using intake rates. We monitored phenology over five plots that were assessed monthly. We weighed animals every six months. We analysed all food items slow lorises ingested for macronutrients using the nutritional geometry framework. Results: The slow loris diet consisted of eight food categories, with gum and insects being the major food source in terms of weight. All food items were available in the wet season and were restricted in the dry season. Males and females reacted differently to seasonal abundances with females ingesting more protein, gum, fruits and flowers and males ingesting more fibre. Discussion: The reproductive costs of gestation and lactation may place a burden on females that requires them to alter their foraging strategy during the dry season to ensure enough protein and overall energy is ingested. The overall strategy used by these exudativorous primates is one of nutrient maximization as no nutrient was clearly preferred over another

    The Changing Landscape for Stroke\ua0Prevention in AF: Findings From the GLORIA-AF Registry Phase 2

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    Background GLORIA-AF (Global Registry on Long-Term Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation) is a prospective, global registry program describing antithrombotic treatment patterns in patients with newly diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke. Phase 2 began when dabigatran, the first non\u2013vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC), became available. Objectives This study sought to describe phase 2 baseline data and compare these with the pre-NOAC era collected during phase 1. Methods During phase 2, 15,641 consenting patients were enrolled (November 2011 to December 2014); 15,092 were eligible. This pre-specified cross-sectional analysis describes eligible patients\u2019 baseline characteristics. Atrial fibrillation disease characteristics, medical outcomes, and concomitant diseases and medications were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Of the total patients, 45.5% were female; median age was 71 (interquartile range: 64, 78) years. Patients were from Europe (47.1%), North America (22.5%), Asia (20.3%), Latin America (6.0%), and the Middle East/Africa (4.0%). Most had high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc [Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age  6575 years, Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke, Vascular disease, Age 65 to 74 years, Sex category] score  652; 86.1%); 13.9% had moderate risk (CHA2DS2-VASc = 1). Overall, 79.9% received oral anticoagulants, of whom 47.6% received NOAC and 32.3% vitamin K antagonists (VKA); 12.1% received antiplatelet agents; 7.8% received no antithrombotic treatment. For comparison, the proportion of phase 1 patients (of N = 1,063 all eligible) prescribed VKA was 32.8%, acetylsalicylic acid 41.7%, and no therapy 20.2%. In Europe in phase 2, treatment with NOAC was more common than VKA (52.3% and 37.8%, respectively); 6.0% of patients received antiplatelet treatment; and 3.8% received no antithrombotic treatment. In North America, 52.1%, 26.2%, and 14.0% of patients received NOAC, VKA, and antiplatelet drugs, respectively; 7.5% received no antithrombotic treatment. NOAC use was less common in Asia (27.7%), where 27.5% of patients received VKA, 25.0% antiplatelet drugs, and 19.8% no antithrombotic treatment. Conclusions The baseline data from GLORIA-AF phase 2 demonstrate that in newly diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients, NOAC have been highly adopted into practice, becoming more frequently prescribed than VKA in Europe and North America. Worldwide, however, a large proportion of patients remain undertreated, particularly in Asia and North America. (Global Registry on Long-Term Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation [GLORIA-AF]; NCT01468701

    Primary resistance mechanism of the canine distemper virus fusion protein against a small-molecule membrane fusion inhibitor.

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    Morbilliviruses (e.g. measles virus [MeV] or canine distemper virus [CDV]) employ the attachment (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins for cell entry. H protein engagement to a cognate receptor eventually leads to F-triggering. Upon activation, F proteins transit from a prefusion to a postfusion conformation; a refolding process that is associated with membrane merging. Small-molecule morbilliviral fusion inhibitors such as the compound 3G (a chemical analog in the AS-48 class) were previously generated and mechanistic studies revealed a stabilizing effect on morbilliviral prefusion F trimers. Here, we aimed at designing 3G-resistant CDV F mutants by introducing single cysteine residues at hydrophobic core positions of the helical stalk region. Covalently-linked F dimers were generated, which highlighted substantial conformational flexibility within the stalk to achieve those irregular F conformations. Our findings demonstrate that "top-stalk" CDV F cysteine mutants (F-V571C and F-L575C) remained functional and gained resistance to 3G. Conversely, although not all "bottom-stalk" F cysteine variants preserved proper bioactivity, those that remained functional exhibited 3G-sensitivity. According to the recently determined prefusion MeV F trimer/AS-48 co-crystal structure, CDV residues F-V571 and F-L575 may directly interact with 3G. A combination of conformation-specific anti-F antibodies and low-resolution electron microscopy structural analyses confirmed that 3G lost its stabilizing effect on "top-stalk" F cysteine mutants thus suggesting a primary resistance mechanism. Overall, our data suggest that the fusion inhibitor 3G stabilizes prefusion CDV F trimers by docking at the top of the stalk domain

    Timing of Revascularization and Parenteral Antibiotic Treatment Associated with Therapeutic Failures in Ischemic Diabetic Foot Infections

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    For ischemic diabetic foot infections (DFIs), revascularization ideally occurs before surgery, while a parenteral antibiotic treatment could be more efficacious than oral agents. In our tertiary center, we investigated the effects of the sequence between revascularization and surgery (emphasizing the perioperative period of 2 weeks before and after surgery), and the influence of administering parenteral antibiotic therapy on the outcomes of DFIs. Among 838 ischemic DFIs with moderate-to-severe symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, we revascularized 608 (72%; 562 angioplasties, 62 vascular surgeries) and surgically debrided all. The median length of postsurgical antibiotic therapy was 21 days (given parenterally for the initial 7 days). The median time delay between revascularization and debridement surgery was 7 days. During the long-term follow-up, treatment failed and required reoperation in 182 DFI episodes (30%). By multivariate Cox regression analyses, neither a delay between surgery and angioplasty (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 1.0–1.0), nor the postsurgical sequence of angioplasty (HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1.8), nor long-duration parenteral antibiotic therapy (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9–1.1) prevented failures. Our results might indicate the feasibility of a more practical approach to ischemic DFIs in terms of timing of vascularization and more oral antibiotic use
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