875 research outputs found

    Integral valorization of Acacia dealbata wood in organic medium catalyzed by an acidic ionic liquid

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    In this work, a novel delignification process was proposed for the fractionation of invasive species such as Acacia dealbata wood. Organosolv process catalyzed with an acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrosulfate was evaluated to obtain cellulose-enriched solids and liquid fractions rich in hemicelluloses derived compounds and lignin. Under selected operating conditions (190 °C, 60% ethanol, 60 min of reaction time and 0.6 g 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrosulfate/g wood), high solubilization of lignin and hemicelluloses and cellulose recovery (87.5%, 88.7% and 88.3%, respectively), with a pulp yield of 43.1% were achieved. Moreover, 62.6 % of lignin was recovered by precipitation from the black liquor (composed mainly by 4.43 g xylose/L, 7.66 g furfural/L and 3.59 g acetic acid/L). In addition, enzymatic digestibility of delignified wood was also assayed. Overall, this work presents an alternative biorefinery scheme based in the use of environmentally friendly solvent and catalyst for selective fractionation of A. dealbata wood.The authors acknowledge the financial support received from the Spanish “Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness” (Project CTQ2017- 82962-R) and from “Xunta de Galicia” (GRC ED431C 2018/47 and Centro Singular de Investigacion ´ Biom´edica “CINBIO”). These projects are partially funded by the FEDER Program of the European Union (“Unha maneira de facer Europa”). A. Romaní thanks BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01–0145-FEDER-000004) funded by European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 – Programa Operacional Regional do Norte.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Current options in the valorisation of vine pruning residue for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, antioxidants, and bio-composites following the concept of biorefinery: a review

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    Europe is considered the largest producer of wine worldwide, showing a high market potential. Several wastes are generated at the different stages of the wine production process, namely, vine pruning, stalks, and grape marc. Typically, these residues are not used and are commonly discarded. Portugal generates annually approximately 178 thousand metric tons of wine production waste. In this context, the interest in redirecting the use of these residues has increased due to overproduction, great availability, and low costs. The utilization of these lignocellulosic biomasses derived from the wine industry would economically benefit the producers, while mitigating impacts on the environment. These by-products can be submitted to pre-treatments (physical, chemical, and biological) for the separation of different compounds with high industrial interest, reducing the waste of agro-industrial activities and increasing industrial profitability. Particularly, vine-pruning residue, besides being a source of sugar, has high nutritional value and may serve as a source of phenolic compounds. These compounds can be obtained by bioconversion, following a concept of biorefinery. In this framework, the current routes of the valorisation of the pruning residues will be addressed and put into a circular economy context.This study was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) within the programme Interreg V-A España-Portugal (POCTEP) 2014–2020, through the project BIOVINO (0688_BIOVINO_6_E), by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) under the scope of the strategic funding of UIDB/04469/2020 and UIDP/05937/2020 units and by CISAS projects supporting the two (M.J. and F.M.) authors, and by the Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICIN) through the grant RYC2020-030690-I (to A.R.).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    RAS mutation status predicts survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases.

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    ObjectiveTo determine the impact of RAS mutation status on survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing curative resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after preoperative modern chemotherapy.BackgroundRAS mutation has been reported to be associated with aggressive tumor biology. However, the effect of RAS mutation on survival and patterns of recurrence after resection of CLM remains unclear.MethodsSomatic mutations were analyzed using mass spectroscopy in 193 patients who underwent single-regimen modern chemotherapy before resection of CLM. The relationship between RAS mutation status and survival outcomes was investigated.ResultsDetected somatic mutations included RAS (KRAS/NRAS) in 34 (18%), PIK3CA in 13 (7%), and BRAF in 2 (1%) patients. At a median follow-up of 33 months, 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 81% in patients with wild-type versus 52.2% in patients with mutant RAS (P = 0.002); 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 33.5% with wild-type versus 13.5% with mutant RAS (P = 0.001). Liver and lung recurrences were observed in 89 and 83 patients, respectively. Patients with RAS mutation had a lower 3-year lung RFS rate (34.6% vs 59.3%, P < 0.001) but not a lower 3-year liver RFS rate (43.8% vs 50.2%, P = 0.181). In multivariate analyses, RAS mutation predicted worse OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, P = 0.002), overall RFS (HR = 1.9, P = 0.005), and lung RFS (HR = 2.0, P = 0.01), but not liver RFS (P = 0.181).ConclusionsRAS mutation predicts early lung recurrence and worse survival after curative resection of CLM. This information may be used to individualize systemic and local tumor-directed therapies and follow-up strategies

    The use of intraoperative ultrasound for diagnosis and stadiation in pancreatic head neoformations

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    The intraoperative staging of the pancreatic cancer is important to make a proper treatment. For this reason the intraoperative echography is playing an important role in the right treatment choice. The intraoperative echography, that can be performed with an open or laparoscopic probe, is used to confirm the preoperative diagnosis and assess the pancreatic cancer resecability. The intraoperative echography (IOUS) or laparoscopic intraoperative echography (LIOUS) are useful to identify the patients with a non resecable cancer and perform a faster neoadjuvant treatment. The LIOUS can also avoid an useless laparotomy. The aim of this study is to assess, both in our experience and in the cited literature, the concordance rate between the pancreatic cancer preoperative staging, performed with TC and MRI (when it is available), and intraoperative staging, performed with intraoperative laparotomic or laparoscopic echography. Material and methods: We have analyzed the treatment management of 34 patients, who were candidate to major surgery for suspected pancreatic head cancer and who underwent to intraoperative LIOUS or IOUS staging from 2001 to 2012. Results: LIOUS and IOUS have allowed to detect cases in which preoperative diagnosis, proved by CT and MRI, was not agreeing with intraoperative diagnosis (22 patients on 34, 64% discordance rate), avoiding the execution of a demolitive and uneseful surgery in order to guarantee the surveillance and life's quality of patients. Conclusion: We suggest to perform in every patients undergone to pancreatic surgery an intraoperative ultrasound exam, to detect unresecable and unpredicted lesions

    Dengue Virus-Induced Inflammation of the Endothelium and the Potential Roles of Sphingosine Kinase-1 and MicroRNAs

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    Copyright © 2015 Amanda L. Aloia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.One of the main pathogenic effects of severe dengue virus (DENV) infection is a vascular leak syndrome. There are no available antivirals or specific DENV treatments and without hospital support severe DENV infection can be life-threatening. The cause of the vascular leakage is permeability changes in the endothelial cells lining the vasculature that are brought about by elevated vasoactive cytokine and chemokines induced following DENV infection. The source of these altered cytokine and chemokines is traditionally believed to be from DENV-infected cells such as monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells. Herein we discuss the evidence for the endothelium as an additional contributor to inflammatory and innate responses during DENV infection which may affect endothelial cell function, in particular the ability to maintain vascular integrity. Furthermore, we hypothesise roles for two factors, sphingosine kinase-1 and microRNAs (miRNAs), with a focus on several candidate miRNAs, which are known to control normal vascular function and inflammatory responses. Both of these factors may be potential therapeutic targets to regulate inflammation of the endothelium during DENV infection

    Dengue Virus-Induced Inflammation of the Endothelium and the Potential Roles of Sphingosine Kinase-1 and MicroRNAs

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    One of the main pathogenic effects of severe dengue virus (DENV) infection is a vascular leak syndrome. There are no available antivirals or specific DENV treatments and without hospital support severe DENV infection can be life-threatening. The cause of the vascular leakage is permeability changes in the endothelial cells lining the vasculature that are brought about by elevated vasoactive cytokine and chemokines induced following DENV infection. The source of these altered cytokine and chemokines is traditionally believed to be from DENV-infected cells such as monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells. Herein we discuss the evidence for the endothelium as an additional contributor to inflammatory and innate responses during DENV infection which may affect endothelial cell function, in particular the ability to maintain vascular integrity. Furthermore, we hypothesise roles for two factors, sphingosine kinase-1 and microRNAs (miRNAs), with a focus on several candidate miRNAs, which are known to control normal vascular function and inflammatory responses. Both of these factors may be potential therapeutic targets to regulate inflammation of the endothelium during DENV infection

    A drastic complex atheromatous aorta. A case report

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    Aortic atherosclerosis is the most common disease of the aorta. More than 50% of the plaques thicker than 4 mm are located along the descending aorta. The complex morphology of the plaque, such as ulceration or the presence of thrombi, is associated with increased embolic risk. The increasing use of transesophageal echocardiogram has enhanced the recognition of aortic atheromas. We describe a case of a male patient with complex atherosclerotic disease involving the coronary vessels and descending aortic tract with some embolic complications

    Invariant Natural Killer T-cells and their subtypes may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis

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    Objective: To evaluate the frequencies of iNKT cells and their subsets in patients with deep endometriosis. Methods: A case-control study was conducted between 2013 and 2015, with 73 patients distributed into two groups: 47 women with a histological diagnosis of endometriosis and 26 controls. Peripheral blood, endometriosis lesions, and healthy peritoneal samples were collected on the day of surgery to determine the frequencies of iNKT cells and subtypes via flow cytometry analysis. Results: The authors observed a lower number of iNKT (p = 0.01) and Double-Negative (DN) iNKT cells (p = 0.02) in the blood of patients with endometriosis than in the control group. The number of DN iNKT IL-17+ cells in the secretory phase was lower in the endometriosis group (p = 0.049). There was an increase in the secretion of IL-17 by CD4+ iNKT cells in the blood of patients with endometriosis and severe dysmenorrhea (p = 0.038), and severe acyclic pelvic pain (p = 0.048). Patients with severe dysmenorrhea also had a decreased number of CD4+ CCR7+ cells (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The decreased number of total iNKT and DN iNKT cells in patients with endometriosis suggests that iNKT cells play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and can be used to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic agents

    Engineering aspects of hydrothermal pretreatment: from batch to continuous operation, scale-up and pilot reactor under biorefinery concept

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    Different pretreatments strategies have been developed over the years mainly to enhance enzymatic cellulose degradation. In the new biorefinery era, a more holistic view on pretreatment is required to secure optimal use of the whole biomass. Hydrothermal pretreatment technology is regarded as very promising for lignocellulose biomass fractionation biorefinery and to be implemented at the industrial scale for biorefineries of second generation and circular bioeconomy, since it does not require no chemical inputs other than liquid water or steam and heat. This review focuses on the fundamentals of hydrothermal pretreatment, structure changes of biomass during this pretreatment, multiproduct strategies in terms of biorefinery, reactor technology and engineering aspects from batch to continuous operation. The treatise includes a case study of hydrothermal biomass pretreatment at pilot plant scale and integrated process design.The authors gratefully thank the Secretary of Public Education ofMexico – Mexican Science and Technology Council (SEP-CONACYT,Mexico) for the Basic Science Project -2015-01 (Ref. 254808), EnergySustainability Fund 2014-05 (CONACYT-SENER), Mexican Centre forInnovation in Bioenergy (Cemie-Bio), Cluster of Bioalcohols (Ref.249564) and the BMBF for the financial support (reference number:031B0660A).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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