275 research outputs found

    Impact of air barriers application in LCA and LCC of naturally ventilated dwellings in mild climate regions

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    "Available online 17 November 2022"Assessing singular elements that constitute the air barrier of a building envelope is quite unfeasible in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The study of these solutions through this particular scope is often overlooked. Two major aspects contribute to it: the complexity of the relationships between elements and the reduced embodied impact of these materials in the overall construction or retrofitting works. This work uses LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) to study the viability of applying two envelope air barrier solutions in dwellings with excessive air change rates and equipped with different heating systems. The application of air barrier solutions resulted in average energy consumption savings in urban terrain, almost half of those in rural terrain during the heating season. Environmental performance and life cycle costs revealed mechanically (MECH) fastened air barriers to outperform fluid (FLUID) applied ones. The median annualized cost of adopting a FLUID solution was almost four times that of a MECH solution. Dwellings equipped with electric radiators ranked first in the shortest average Energy Payback Period (EPP) and the highest average Reference Service Life (RSL) savings. With the current analysis, the adoption of MECH solutions is recommended, independently of the heating system the dwelling is equipped with.This work was financially supported by: Base Funding - UIDB/04708/2020 and Programmatic Funding - UIDP/04708/2020 of the CONSTRUCT - Instituto de I&D em Estruturas e Construções - funded by national funds through the FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC). The author would like to acknowledge the support of FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, the funding of the Doctoral Grant PD/BD/135162/2017, through the Doctoral Programme EcoCoRe. This work is supported by the European Social Fund (ESF), through the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (Norte 2020) [Funding Reference: NORTE-06-3559-FSE-000176]

    Influence of 3D microstructure pattern and infill density on the mechanical and thermal properties of PET-G filaments

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    This study aims to evaluate the thermal and mechanical performances of PET-G thermoplastics with different 3D microstructure patterns and infill densities. The production costs were also estimated to identify the most cost-effective solution. A total of 12 infill patterns were analysed, including Gyroid, Grid, Hilbert curve, Line, Rectilinear, Stars, Triangles, 3D Honeycomb, Honeycomb, Concentric, Cubic, and Octagram spiral with a fixed infill density of 25%. Different infill densities ranging from 5% to 20% were also tested to determine the best geometries. Thermal tests were conducted in a hotbox test chamber and mechanical properties were evaluated using a series of three-point bending tests. The study used printing parameters to meet the construction sector’s specific needs, including a larger nozzle diameter and printing speed. The internal microstructures led to variations of up to 70% in thermal performance and up to 300% in mechanical performance. For each geometry, the mechanical and thermal performance was highly correlated with the infill pattern, where higher infill improved thermal and mechanical performances. The economic performance showed that, in most cases, except for the Honeycomb and 3D Honeycomb, there were no significant cost differences between infill geometries. These findings can provide valuable insights for selecting the optimal 3D printing parameters in the construction industry.This work was partly financed by FCT/MCTES through national funds (PIDDAC) under the R&D Unit Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering (ISISE), under reference UIDB/04029/2020, and under the Associate Laboratory Advanced Production and Intelligent Systems ARISE under reference LA/P/0112/2020. The work was also partly financed by the program Portugal Norte 2020-Projetos Estruturados I&D, with the reference NORTE 01-0145-FEDER-000058—ZeroSkin+ project

    DILEMAS ÉTICOS VIVENCIADOS PELA EQUIPE DE SAÚDE NO CUIDADO À PESSOA EM TRATAMENTO ONCOLÓGICO

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    Objetivo: Conhecer os dilemas éticos vivenciados na prática da equipe de saúde no cuidado à pessoa em tratamento oncológico. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo qualitativo realizado em unidades de assistência de alta complexidade em oncologia no município de Feira de Santana-Bahia. Foi realizada uma entrevista semiestruturada, que contou com a participação de onze profissionais da área da saúde. A análise dos dados ocorreu através Análise de Conteúdo proposta por Bardin. Resultados: O estudo apontou que os profissionais de saúde que lidam com pessoas em tratamento oncológico vivenciam dilemas éticos na prática, frente a: cuidados paliativos; não revelar o diagnóstico a pessoa com câncer; dúvida quanto as manobras para reanimar ou não; negação/depressão da pessoa com diagnóstico de câncer e seus familiares. Conclusão: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos cotidianamente, entretanto muitas vezes não os reconhecem, bem como ficam na dúvida para tomar decisões

    Reabilitação nZEB e pobreza energética na Habitação social

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    Para alívio da pobreza energética, é fundamental identificar as medidas mais adequadas e mais rentáveis a aplicar em edifícios de habitação social e garantir que os investimentos necessários resultem em necessidades energéticas compatíveis com os rendimentos da população residente neste tipo de edifícios

    Specification of glazings for façades based on spectrophotometric characterization of transmittance

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    The correct specification of glazings for façades can reduce the energy consumption in buildings. The heat exchange occurs through transparent surfaces and radiation reaches the building as light and heat. Therefore, glazings significantly contribute to the heat transfer between outdoor and indoor spaces and act directly on daylighting and thermal comfort. This paper reports on the spectrophotometric characterization of glazings transmittance for the study of components of a modular façade system and its suitability for the climate of Portugal (temperate climate). The study focused on results of spectrophotometric measurements of optical properties, specifically the transmittance of some types of glazings (solar control, self-cleaning, low-e, float, and extra-clear) and two types of double glazings. The results show the percentage of transmission to ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions and its importance, which enabled the analysis of the glazing efficiency regarding daylighting and the correlation to thermal performance. Subsidies and indications for the specification and adequate uses of transparent surfaces have been presented and complemented the datasheets available from the manufactures.This research was funded by Erasmus Mundus External Cooperation Window–ISAC: Improving Skills Across Continents (Framework Partnership Agreement 2008-1021/001 FRAMEECW L16 Coimbra, Specific Grant Agreement 2008-3628/001-001-MUN-ECW)

    BIM-based energy analysis and sustainability assessment - application to Portuguese buildings

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    Buildings are responsible for several negative impacts on the environment, most of them related to nonrenewable energy consumption, increasing the concern regarding buildings energy efficiency. In this context, computer software has been used to estimate the energy needs of the built environment, and the Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology can be used to simplify this process. This study aims to validate a BIM-based framework to streamline the energy analysis of Portuguese buildings, based on the method of the national regulation for the thermal performance of residential buildings. Currently, designers need to spend considerable time assessing all the building characteristics and performing the mandatory calculations for energy performance analysis. It is also intended to link the results of the energy simulation with a Building Sustainability Assessment method—SBToolPT-H. The purpose is to demonstrate how it is possible to benefit from this approach to simultaneously improve building sustainability during the design stage. To do so, different case studies were modelled in Autodesk Revit and exported to a BIM energy tool to perform energy simulation analysis. The results were validated against the official assessment method of the Portuguese thermal regulation and were successfully used to assess the SBToolPT-H energy efficiency category. The research outcomes provide design teams with a reliable BIM-based framework to improve building energy performance and to develop thermal projects while enhancing building sustainability. It also increases the knowledge about the integration of sustainability assessment in the BIM environment, providing new insights for complete integration.This research was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology through the Regional Operation Programme of North (grant number SFRH/BD/145735/2019)

    Thermal performance and comfort conditions analysis of a vernacular Palafitic timber building in Portuguese Coastline context

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    The palafitic timber constructions of the central Portuguese coastline are an example of the adaptation to site-specific conditions (climate and sand landscape morphodynamics) using the available endogenous resources. Thus, in a context of environmental awareness and climate change, it is relevant to understand their features/strategies and how they perform. This work analyses the energy performance and thermal condition evaluation of a vernacular timber building–palheiro–from Praia de Mira, through in situ measurements, subjective analysis and energy simulation provided by DesignBuilder/EnergyPlus. The results show a good or satisfactory thermal performance during most of the seasons by passive means only. Despite, it was not possible to guarantee thermal comfort conditions for the occupants during winter. In the energy performance analysis, five scenarios, with different external walls, were compared. In the two scenarios that satisfy the maximum U-value for the climate zone, the current conventional building had a slightly better performance on heating and cooling (less 1.1 and 1.4 kWh/m2, respectively) than the timber building. However, the difference between the two construction solutions is not substantial in the annual energy demand (2.5 kWh/m2, 7.3%), indicating that timber structures are suitable in this mild climate area.POCI-01-0145-FEDER-029328; PD/BD/113641/2015. FEDER funds through the Competitively and Internationalization Operational Programme (POCI) and by national funds through FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology) within the scope of the project with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-029328 and of the PhD grant with the reference PD/BD/113641/2015, that were fundamental for the development of this stud

    Projeto HARP - Uma ferramenta de apoio ao consumidor para a descarbonização do aquecimento nas habitações

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    Os consumidores não possuem, em geral, consciência da ineficiência do seu sistema de aquecimento e dos custos associados ao seu funcionamento. Uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão pode ser determinante para uma escolha acertada do sistema de aquecimento mais adequado e eficiente

    Reliability of quantitative and qualitative assessment of air leakage paths through reductive sealing

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    A full characterization of a building air leakage is labour intensive. As results of laboratory and mock-up experimentation rarely portray in situ conditions, the assessment of real case studies bring added value. Still, the results of experimentation of the latter face more challenges than the former. In this work a full quantitative and qualitative assessment of air leakage paths is performed, using a light steel framing (LSP) modular building with structural insulated panels (Sips) as case study. Blower-door measurements undergo for a sealing campaign of eleven steps, a technique often described as reductive sealing. Additionally, smoke tracer measurements were carried out to visually identify the air leakage locations. The application of three regression methods resulted in different uncertainty estimates. Less than 7% of the total air leakage was not attributed to one of the considered types of air leakage paths. Assessing less impacting leakage paths first and placing similar types of air leakage paths in a consecutive sealing order seems to be the most correct strategy when using the reductive sealing technique. On average, at a reference pressure difference of 4 Pa, the sealing step uncertainty averaged, 9.9%, 18.8%, and 27.5%, depending on the method used for regression of the blower door test results. Despite the highest calculated uncertainty, literature shows that the application of the method leading to it, Weighted Line of Organic Correlation (WLOC), provides the results in closer agreement with the observed uncertainty of measurements.- This work was financially supported by: Base Funding - UIDB/04708/2020 and Programmatic Funding - UIDP/04708/2020 of the CONSTRUCT-Instituto de 1&0 em Estruturas e Construcoes - funded by national funds through the FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC). The author would like to acknowledge the support of FCT - Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, the funding of the Doctoral Grant PD/BDIl35162/2017, through the Doctoral Programme EcoCoRe

    Strategies for school buildings refurbishment in Portuguese climate

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    Portuguese school buildings are generally characterized by an in-service thermal discomfort, due to the poor envelope thermal properties and the lack of resources for paying energy consumption. Most Portuguese schools are free-running buildings with a natural ventilation strategy. Hundreds of high and basic schools have not been refurbished and still have problems or anomalies and inadequate in-service conditions and need to be rehabilitated in the near future. There will be, therefore, an opportunity to apply the acquired knowledge of comfort, habits, energy consumption and costs that have been studied since the last refurbishments (2008). This work studies the Portuguese Brandão schools model (from the ’70s), including about 100 non-refurbished basic schools. A prototype classroom was prepared in a Brandão school, in Porto. The in situ experimental campaign consisted of temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration and energy consumption measurements. The main tasks of this work are: (1) the validation of an advanced hygrothermal model with experimental measurements before and after the prototype refurbishment; (2) development of a sensitivity study in order to choose the best refurbishment and heating strategies for these buildings, regarding their typology, the local climate features and the actual capacity to support the operating costs; (3) assessment of the roof insulation thickness in Brandão schools; (4) quantification of discomfort indicators.This work was financially supported by: Base Funding - UIDB/04708/2020 of the CONSTRUCT -Instituto de I&D em Estruturas e Construcoes - funded by national funds through the FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC). Francisca Cavaleiro Barbosa would like to thank FCT for financial support through the grant PD/BD/52658/2014
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